In the eleventh episode of No Sounds Are Forbidden, “Among the Ruins: The Rebirth of Europe’s Avant-Garde,” host Matthew Friedman explores how European composers built a new avant-garde, virtually out of nothing after the Second World War. Growing out of the Darmstadt International Summer Courses for New Music, this transnational community of composers sought to build a new music for a new, united Europe, although they could never escape the shadow of Europe’s traumatic past

This episode features music by Olivier Messiaen, Pierre Boulez, Hans Werner Henze, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Gyorgy Ligeti