The twentieth century, Lenin once predicted, would be remembered as a century of revolution. Perhaps nowhere did this forecast prove more accurate than in central Europe, which between 1917 and 1992 witnessed arguably no fewer than eight revolutionary episodes. Of course, these events did not unfold in quite the way Lenin envisaged; in the same way that central Europe became a laboratory for competing ideologies of the twentieth century, so it became the birthplace and testing ground of new styles of revolution and resistance.
Decades before the Arab Spring, intellectuals, writers, and artists have challenged the status-quo of authoritarian systems in Iran, Egypt, Tunisia, and elsewhere. At the same time, state agents and cultural institutions have attempted to dictate and limit the terms of literary, artistic, and intellectual engagement not only through sponsorship and patronage but also censorship, and other directly re