Call for papers:
Tourism : The Phenomenon and its Socio-economic Consequences
Tunisian -Mediterranean Association for Historical, Social and Economic Studies & Tunisian World Center for Studies, Research, and Development are organizing on 28th, 29th, & 30th November 2017 the Tenth International symposium on the following theme: Tourism : The Phenomenon and its Socio-economic Consequences
The word tourism possesses two senses: the act of travelling for non lucrative reasons and that of travelling for economic purposes. The French dictionaries of the XIXth Century, notably those of Littré and Larousse, underline the characters of “curiosity” and the “idleness” that are the essence of tourists. Montaigne who travelled from June 1580 to November 1581 to France, Switzerland, Germany and Italy appears to be the typical tourist who made a journey for just the pleasure of it: " If it is not fine on the right, I turn on the left (…). did I leave something to see behind me? If yes, I there return”. Het shows his desire to learn: "Making of journeys seems to me a profitable exercise (…). I don't know a better school to form life than constantly exposing our eyes to the diversity of so many other lives, opinions and ways of doings things". In the XXth Century, the international institutions complete the definition while adding the criterion of the time: the tourist is the person who leaves his/her usual residence for a period comprised between 24 hours and one year, in view of devoting themselves to a non gainful activity. The geographers underline the systemic dimension of the phenomenon: it is « a system of actors, practices and spaces».
Tourism cannot emerge and develop unless a number of conditions are met: curiosity, taste of the discovery and disorientation; resources permitting to finance this curiosity; free time to be able to leave the usual residence temporarily; means of transportation and lodging. In the XIXth Century, the construction of the railroads gives a spectacular flight to displacements. Thus, the journey Paris - Nice that took a dozen of days in diligence has been shorten to 23 hours in 1864 when the first railway link between the two cities was inaugurated and, thanks to the technical progress, to 13hours and 50 minutes in 1914. Nice that welcomed only a few hundreds of tourists at the time of diligences passed to more than a million on the eve of the First World War.
I. The touristic phenomenon
The tourist displacement possesses old roots that the historians studied for the Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the modern time. However, it is in the XVIIIth Century that the phenomenon takes its contemporary dimension and thus receives its qualification. At this time, the young English aristocrats took the habit of completing their intellectual and artistic formation while accomplishing a « Grand Tour of Europe » that drives them to Italy, especially to Rome and to Tuscany, in some capital cities like Paris, and sometimes in the mountainous regions of the Alps as the taste of nature and the authentic landscapesstarted to develop. The rediscovery of Herculaneum and Pompeii stimulates the movement and the interest for archeology.
The English word tourist, formed from the French tour and designating the person who moves was used in 1800 by the British, before being adopted by the French in 1803 (touriste). The word spills and Stendhal published A Tourist's Memoirs in 1838. The substantive tourism dates from the end of the XIXth Century.
In the XIXth Century, the Oriental Mediterranean has especially become a favorite goal of journey sought-after by European artists. Lord BYRON took a long stay there from 1809 to 1811, Gustave FLAUBERT, accompanied by his friend Maxim the Camp stayed there from 1849 to 1852. Flaubert vent to Tunisia from April to June 1858 to gather some documents on Carthage where the plot of his novel entitled Salambô is based (1862). The relations of journeys increased: Châteaubri and published his book Itinerary of Paris in Jerusalem in 1811, Lamartine and Nerval wrote each a book entitled A Journey in Orient, narrations published respectively in 1835 and 1851. Painters like Delacroix, Fromentin, Gérôme, architects, later photographers came to look for models in the East of the Mediterranean. Thus was the image of the Orient, somehow more or less fantasized. As the colonial empires constituted themselves, appeared a specific kind of tourism attracting people in quest of disorientation and exoticism. In Java, in the Dutch Indies, in Maghreb and the French Indochina, hotels, roads, climatic stations, and sometimes casinos were constructed for Europeans, local civil servants or tourists. The first efforts for the preservation of the heritage are provided. Tourism thus became a source of observations, a field of experiences, a species of laboratory where often develops pictures, concepts, stereotypes that are spilled in the countries of origin of the travelers..
The various shapes of tourism can be spelt out in a rich typology.
The cultural tourism represents one of the oldest incarnations of the phenomenon. Even in the Antiquity already, the Romans set for journey in search of the discovery of the art works bequeathed by Greece. Paris, the most visited city nowadays in the world, with 15 million registered people every year, benefit from the reputation of her museums, her monuments, her avenues, her style of life. In the world, innumerable cities of art drain the crowds of people. The heritage in the general senses thus became a very profitable capital. Some temporary cultural demonstrations also play an important role; it is the case of the world fairs of which the first among them, organized in London in 1851, attracted more 6 millions of visitors. The retrospectives, dedicated to a famous artist or a mobilizing theme, permitting to see art works lent by faraway museums, are well valued by the public. Of a particular shape, the industrial tourism proposes visits to former factories, forges, dams, salt marshes… The eco-museums present machines and tools of past to visitors.
The tourism of festival, other cultural leisure shape, generally rests on yearly demonstrations, organized at stationary date, often dedicated to the spectacle and the artistic activities. These demonstrations are poly-cultural or centered on a theme: the theater in Avignon, the classical music in Aix-en-Provence or Salzburg, the comic strip in Angouleme. In Ouagadougou, takes place the Pan-African Festival of the movies and the television. Some countries as Tunisia with Sousse, Tabarka, Carthage, Hammamet to name but those possess many festivals. Crowds can be very important; the Old Plows in Carhaix in Brittany, where artists organize shows, passed from 2 000 spectators in 1993 to 200 000 in the beginning of the XXIth Century. The ties with the politics appear frequent: noticed creations, laudatory critiques, and a good company constitute sources of prestige for a country; the Festival of Cannes, the first film demonstration of the world, is instituted in 1939 as the “ festival of the democracies " in reaction against the Mostra of Venice, " festival of fascisms " controlled by the Mussolinian regime.
The tourism memorial proposes the visit of places loaded of history as the Great Wall of China, the site of the former wall of Berlin, the fields of the First World War with Verdun, the Nazi concentration camps… It can be about an individual and intimate history, like the return to places where one used to live,: some " black feet ", for example, take the path of Algeria of their youth.
The religious tourism or pilgrimage is attested since the Antiquity. Indeed, Ancients came to look for the recovery by the god of Asclepius in its sanctuaries of Epidaurus and Kos. They also surrendered in Delphos to know the future that they were revealed the Pythie, the priestess of Apollon. The pilgrimage rests thus on the meeting of the occult in a precise and sacred place that permits a communication with the divinity by the achievement of rituals, the reverence of relics, the bath in a stream or a source. The Mecca and Medina, Jerusalem and the tomb of the patriarchs in Hebron, Rome, Heavy, Saint - Jacques of Compostelle, Fatima, the Ganges and the Undue, the Mount Fuji where the Shintoists used to go…, which attracted considerable crowds estimated to 500 million people in 2016. The « zarda » is the visit made to the mausoleum of a holy Moslem or a dignitary of « zaouïa ».
The creative tourism unites people generally interested by the immaterial heritage, by the discovery of a technique and its practice. It is in this vein that shops and the culinary workshops, pottery practices, basketwork, texture practices, and painting on cloth sessions are proposed. Also, it is made possible for people to start learning agriculture by the stay in a farm or in a kibbutz of Israel, to the fishing in high seas…
The sanitary tourism is practiced by people enduring some affections. Previously the tuberculosis was often tidy by stays in sanatorium of altitude. Today, it is the thermalism that represents the main shape of this activity. The places from where spring rich sources in certain mineral propose the baths and the ingestion of water to remedy particular illnesses. The sanitary tourism sometimes rests on simple stays of rest in a climatic station or in the country/rural area.
The bathing tourism is one of the most typical incarnations of mass tourism. The sea bath was considered in the XVIIIth and the XIXth century as a therapy. But the taste of contact with the nature, the flight of the water sports and the elongation in the days of the summer vacations transformed the bath in a popular leisure. The countries possessing beaches arrange them; edge them of hotels and centers of all kind of trades. The Mediterranean coastline that offers attractive sites and a sunny summer climate becomes one of the world centers of the bathing tourism: the French Riviera, Djerba, Hammamet, the Costa Brava, the Balearic, among many other places, constitute typical cases. Many other examples can be given in the world, of Mauritius Island to the beaches Latin America or Florida. With a particular shape, the naturist tourism which is made up of 800 sites in 42 countries is practiced by people refusing, at least during vacations, to wear some clothes.
To some extent the wintry tourism constitutes the symmetry of the bathing shape, and this is so during the snow-covered months. There the well placed stations also multiply amenities, packed down tracks, mechanical ascents, cable cars, springboards, and hotels.
The tourism of cruises was founded in 1891 by the German ship-owner Albert Ballin, anxious of making money on his ships during the winter. The nautical displacement taste, in Mediterranean first, then in the Nordic fjords or the tropical seas is becoming more and more important. Nowadays, gigantic boats capable of containing up to 6 000 passengers are made available. These boats, between two cultural stopovers, have numerous activities on board, spectacles, conferences, gambling machines, swimming pools, …. The fluvial cruise practice witnesses a growing success, for example on the Rhine and the Danube or on the trip from Saint-Petersburg to Moscow. The journey can take place using individual barges through the rivers and the channels. In 2010, about 15 millions of people ventured in cruises.
The tourism of big hike or trekking allows small groups to do a journey by foot that punctuated by bivouacs under the tent or at the inhabitant. Animals, dromedaries in the Sahara, slippers in Morocco, donkeys or llamas in the Andes, carry luggage. The Himalayas, the Andes, the Sahara are counted among the destinations the most appreciated valued ones. The cycling tourism is a variant founded on hikes to bicycle.
The tourism in villages or holidays Clubs is sedentary. Some non-profit making organizations such as the Swiss Case of journey, or, more often, those bearing a commercial character like the Walt Disney Company or the Mediterranean Club, propose a more or less individual accommodation facilities with common hotel services and leisure activities. The Mediterranean Club which was founded in 1950, possessed 80 villages in the world by 2013. In some countries, traditional habitats are rehabilitated thus allowing the tourists to stay in Asian lacustrine villages, Mongol yourtes and African huts. Cities of the Far West are reconstituted in the United States. Upper Canada Village, in Ontario, is a small artificial city composed of authentic buildings: made up of houses, churches, forges, boutiques dating from the XIXth Century, the have been disassembled in various regions and rebuilt in a new place; extras in costume of time create an animation, drive a diligence and work in the shops. A temporary sedentary lifestyle unites the campers who install their tent or their "camping-car" in an establishment endowed with collective facilities, sanitary, swimming pool, games of children, trades, dancing track and others…
Tourism to national parks consists in staying in territories where the fauna, the flora, and the natural habitat are protected, without the interruption of traditional activities. The first park was created in Yellowstone, in the United States, in 1872. In 2003, were counted in the world 3 881 parks of which 59 in the United States, 70 in Brazil, 208 in China, 17 in Tunisia. Some are across-borders as the Mercantour shared between France and Italy. Some are registered to the world Heritage of the UNESCO, like The Kilimandjaro in Tanzania.
Tourism of the attraction parks proposes the leisure, fairground activities, spectacles, sometimes with a lodging there on the spot. The attractions often rest on a theme: the universe of the drawings enlivened in the Disney parks of which the first has been created in Florida in 1955, the ambiance of a movies studio to the Universal park of Orlando, of the historic reconstitutions in the Puy of the Mad in French Vendée, the presentation of marine animals in the Marineland of Antibes, and of folklore in the Medina Alzahra of Sousse.
Tourism of the attraction parks proposes the leisure, fairground activities, spectacles, sometimes with a lodging there on the spot. The attractions often rest on a theme: the universe of the drawings enlivened in the Disney parks of which the first has been created in Florida in 1955, the ambiance of a movies studio to the Universal park of Orlando, of the historic reconstitutions in the Puy of the Mad in French Vendée, the presentation of marine animals in the Marineland of Antibes, and of folklore in the Médina Alzahra of Sousse.
The sporty tourism that unites many spectators on the occasion of big international meetings is revealed to be close to parks of attraction. It requires the specialized infrastructure planning, stages, gymnasiums, velodroms, and other various tracks… The sporty tourism also includes physical activities such as the Climbing, the practice of the Oar or the Canoe…
The business tourism rests on the organization of convention, seminaries, specialized lounges to which participate the entrepreneurs and a part their staff. During these meetings the entrepreneurs present their products, study questions of common interest, try to motivate their employees and reward the most deserving ones. This generally lucky clientele chooses hotels of luxury and do many purchases. The big cities build some convention centers to attract this type of clientele.
II. The Economic Dimension of Tourism
Tourism took a considerable importance by its massive character. In 2013, for the first time, the number of tourists in the world exceeded the symbolic number of the billion. France constitutes the first destination with 83 millions of visitors in 2016, followed by the United States (67 millions in 2012) and China (58 millions in 2012). The returns are indeed considerable: the United States tops the list with 126 billions of dollars, followed by Spain (67 billions) and France (54 billions). The more visited cities are, in the order, Paris, London and New-York. The Mediterranean basin remains the first regional destination of the world with 280 millions arrivals, either a fifth of the total and 30% of the turnover on the subject. Tourism, such a strong activity that creates numerous jobs: in Egypt, before the crisis, about 3 millions of people depended directly or indirectly on tourism; and in France it was almost one million. These jobs were of various kinds: hostelry, restoration, management, guidance, animation, without forgetting the induced activities such as the construction of infrastructures, buildings and trades.
The economic and cultural importance of tourism has inspired the creation of specialized organizations. The World Organization of the Tourism (WOT), implanted in Madrid, is the last incarnation of institutions of the same kind created in-between two wars. Founded in 1970 only to come to force from 1974, the WOT, is a specialized cog of the UNO, in charge of promoting tourism while seeing to it that the interests of developing countries are preserved. A whole set of national, regional, and local committee pyramid pursues relatively similar objectives. The tourist offices facilitate the stays. In the private domain, the tour operators, the "Trick Operators", the companies of navigation and other enterprises of transportation, of the various agencies are in charge the convenient organization. Tourist engineering entitled with the elaboration of management tools has developed lately. Junior schools and high schools, and even some universities prepare the youth to the professions of tourism, kitchen, guidance and superior management. Since the XIXth Century, the journeys are facilitated by the descriptions and the convenient information that are made available by magazines and guides, of which the British Murrays, the German Baedeckers, the Joannes, ancestors of the blue guides, the Michelins and Routers in French.
The tourism constitutes a fragile activity. This activity mobilizes more and more funds and produces an impact on the environment. Also the state intervenes for investment, scheduling, construction of roads, harbors and airports, the legislation on the time of work and school calendar and by providing a more or less marked will for regulation. This regulation grants a relatively important place to the private investors that are attracted by a lucrative sector.
The vulnerability of tourism appears through the risks of the conjuncture. In economic crisis period, everything that has to do with in short to leisure and discovery displacements, or non vital needs, retracts. All kinds of unrests, insecurity, as was the case in Algeria previously and in Libya today, terrorism reveals the peculiar fragility of the sector. Thus, peace is a primordial factor in favour of u tourism. France preserves her rank of first world destination, but after one record year 2015, with 85 millions of visitors, because of the insecurity, she records, a decrease thus working back to 83 millions in 2016. The bloody attacks of Louxor in 1997 (62 deaths), those of Bardo in 2015 (24 deaths) and of Sousse the same year (39 deaths), of Paris in November 13, 2015 (130 deaths), of Nice in July 14, 2016 (86 deaths), among many other violent attacks of the same kind, produced a disastrous effect on tourism in those destinations. Subsequently, the tourist fluxes moved toward regions considered to be sure, notably Croatia, Portugal, Greece…
The tourism can entail negative effects on the regional development: some inequalities are frequently observed between a much frequented region, offering a picture of prosperity, and a disregarded neighboring sector, that remained frozen in its little remunerative traditional activities.
The negative aspects prove to be especially visible in the domain of the environment. Indeed, the spatial concentration and the multiplication of the facilities, roads, parking lots, harbors and marinade, airports, hotel wholes, bathing amenities, gulfs, skiing tracks, consume space, disrupt the natural habitat and the ecosystems. Some beaches disappear because the construction of big tourist sets, of harbor amenities and urbanization reduce the gathering of sand and thus put at stake the coastal balances. Vegetation at those spaces rarely regenerates. The number of the animals, constrained by the anthropization of their habitat, abusively hunted or fished, is reduced. The concrete-making in high mountains in the skiing stations or on the coasts progresses and sometimes reaches records some points of Florida, of Djerba, of the French Riviera, of Majorca.The over-frequentation puts to pain the local resources in energy and in water. The use of water causes some conflicts between professionals of tourism and local agriculturists: in the Mediterranean, a resident tourist in a hotel can consume up to 250 liters per day and even 600 in the establishments of luxury of Morocco. The evacuation used water and the possible insufficiency of the purification stations pose other problems and harm to the quality of the bathing waters, to fishing and agriculture.
III. The socio-cultural dimension
Tourism often brings an enhancement to the heritage that attracts visitors. Scholarly researches and restorations, remarkable sometimes, are done on the monuments of the Pharaonic Egypt, Greece and the Roman Empire, pyramids of Teotihuacan in Mexico, temples of Angkor in Cambodia that welcome a million of visitors per year. In the Arabian world, medina, souks, palace, ribats, mosques, fortifications are often given attentive cares. Emblematic places such as Kairouans or the Moroccan imperial cities attract many visitors. The enrollment of monuments and remarkable sites to the World Heritage of the UNESCO constitute a precious advertising argument. The big museums, lodged in old monuments, as the Louvre in Paris, or recent buildings to the architecture which are sometimes quite daring, as the Guggenheim in New-York, also cause a quick interest. The specialized circuits of art, focused on a region or a theme as the chapels painted of Bukovine in Romania or the Districts Decorative Art of Vienna, widens the tourist offer. Some monuments benefit from a fame renewal thanks to a new vocation: the Ancient Theater of Orange, constructed in the 1st Century, that is remarkably preserved and capable of welcoming 8 600 spectators, served this setting to the most former French festival, the Choregies, founded in 1869, and dedicated to the lyric art. The Roman arenas of Nice sheltered a prestigious festival of jazz for a long time. The Picasso museum of Antibes is installed in a medieval castle and that of Paris in a particular hotel of the XVIIth century. “Sound & Light” shows are organized before the pyramids of Gizeh, in the Pnyx facing the Acropolis of Athens or in the castles of the Loire. Some owners of castles have their lodgings visited and sometimes rent some rooms. It thus proves possible to preserve the heritage, in accordance with the protective law, and open up to modernity.
However the ignorance, indifference to the bequest of the past, of the ideological a priori, of the mercantile preoccupations can entail the destructions, cause harm to the integrity of a monument, and to cultural heresies. Thus, in 2004, the governor of the state of Mexico City allowed the construction by a big chain of a store on the site of Teotihuacan, which subsequently caused serious destructions; shortly after, on the same site, a polemic exploded after the announcement of spectacles foreseeing the implantation of enormous metallic and electric structures. The red Khmers in Cambodia, the Taliban in Afghanistan, and the Islamic State organization in Palmyra destroyed monuments that witnessed unmemorable times whose fanatics wanted to abolish the remarkable memory.
The tourists bring new habits, values, languages that modify often or destroy the traditional life styles. At the end the XIXth Century, the observers noticed that the Niçoises, confronted to the cosmopolitan life of a big tourist city, adopted new behaviors and felt unpublished needs; thus, in 1888, the authors of the Blue Guide noted that young girls abandoned their traditional clothes: « The fashion of Paris is followed nowhere with as much seal as in Nice. The fact is that the population little by little adopts French habits, and thus loses their old customs». The loss of identity can succeed to a "folklorization" of traditional society; the inhabitants are then reduced to a picturesque extra role. Cases of this kind are observed in some spectacles, as the demonstrations of oriental belly dancing, Tahitian dances or Turkish dancing dervishes. The presence of lucky or rich tourist sometimes attracts the troublesome elements, profiteers of all kinds, drug dealers, and prostitutes. Some destinations specialize more or less cheaply in «love making» tourism or the sale of narcotics at cheap prices.
The difficulties that the super-activity tourist sometimes entails in some regions, the saturation of classic destination, the frequent standardization of the offer, the regional inequalities of development, the serious negative impacts on the environment inspire an original reflection. It is all about moving towards new forms, toward a lasting tourism or, with some nuances, towards a more responsible, ethical, interdependent, equitable, and soft tourism; which is sometimes referred to as eco-tourism. This innovating tourism not only aims to enhance the natural, patrimonial, and artistic resources, but also to respect them and preserve them. In so doing, the biologic diversity, the ecological processes, the integrity of the landscapes, the cultural authenticity of the regions will be maintained. These objectives cannot be reached unless they associate the decision-makers, the state, the local collectivities and the autochthonous populations, sometimes regrouped in associations or in NGO. The dialogue constitutes an imperious rule.
The results concerning lasting tourism appear relatively comfortable to reach in the case of the passage tourism, that of big hike, the trekking, the circuits that produce a weak impact on the environment. The same applies to the supervised zones such as national parks. On the other hand, the task proves to be more difficult in the zones of residence where heavy infrastructures such as hotel residences, villages of vacations, means of transportation, big trades and many others are implanted. It is therefore necessary to plan the tourist business, manage the fluxes of tourists and the construction related facilities, reduce the conflicts of use, and enhance the local know-how. These objectives are so complex and stand against so many interests as the lasting tourism remained marginal. Nevertheless, it marks a necessary way to the safeguard of numerous regions. Elsewhere, some experiences are in progress as in the region of Mahrès in Tunisia, far from the company of masses: there, the responsible persons enhance the natural and cultural resources while privileging the exchanges with the local population and avoiding at the same time to give these populations an artificial and folk picture.
So tourism constitutes a key important economic, social and cultural activity which often produces a decisive impact on space and populations. These populations "market" their soil without always being able to keep the power of decision; they depend on the conjuncture and visitors. The ideal would be to reach an equitable level exchange between the tourists and those who welcome them.
The theme on "The Tourism: the phenomenon and its socioeconomic consequences" could be dealt with respecting the following axes:
1. The tourist phenomenon
- Conditions of development of the tourist phenomenon
- History of the international, national, and regional tourism
- Infrastructures and tourist facilities, transportation, hotel architecture,
Tourism and literature
- Tourism and plastic arts
- Tourism and formation of the stereotypes
- Colonial tourism
- Cultural tourism, festivals, memorial tourism, industrial tourism, gastronomic tourism, œnologic tourism,
- Religious tourism and pilgrimages
- Creative tourism
- Sanitary tourism, thermalism,
- Bathing tourism, naturist, cruises, wintry tourism, villages of vacations,
- National park tourism, camping, big hike,
- Parks of attraction, cities of games,
- Sporty tourism
- Business tourism
2. The economic dimension of tourism
- Statistics: number of tourists, destinations, profits and monetary contributions, investments,
- Sociology and prosopography of tourists
- Tourism and employment (direct jobs and induced jobs)
- Derivative activities, building and public works, trade,
- Organization of tourism: IOT, national and regional committees, agencies and tour operators, transportation, engineering,
- Regulation and legislation of tourism
- Formation to the professions of the tourism
- The tourist press, books, guides, magazines, narrations of journey,
- The regional and social inequalities of development
- Tourism and conjuncture: general economic evolution, insecurity, terrorism,
- Tourism and environment: transformation of the space, impact on the nature, pollution,
3. The socio - cultural dimension
- Enhancement of the heritage, restorations, animation,
- Heritage and modernity
- Old monument reallocation
- Circuits of art
- Reaches to the heritage, destructions, abandonments, treasons,
- Tourism and cosmopolitanism: evolution of mentalities and practices, new value apparition, identity threats,
- Tourism and poverty
- Tourism and prostitution
- Traditional society resistance
- The lasting and equitable tourism.
- June 30, 2017: Deadline for submitting proposals to the following email address:
- Participants will receive before July 10, 2017 responses to their proposals and information about the conference registration fees.
- Deadline for sending the Final Text: November 15, 2017
- 10th International Symposium: November 28, 29, and 30, 2017 in Beja, TUNISIA
- Individual proposals: must be a new topic that has not already been published or presented at a scientific symposium.
- Proposal: Detailed summary: at least one page (font: Times New Roman 12; page margins 2.5 cm, single-spaced), with a detailed and up-to-date C.V.
- The proposals can be in Arabic, English, French, or Spanish.
- For abstracts in French or Spanish, a detailed English translation is mandatory (one page at a minimum; font: Times New Roman 12, page margins 2.5 cm, single-spaced).
- For summaries in Arabic, a detailed translation into English or French is mandatory (one page at a minimum: font: Times New Roman 12, page margins 2.5 cm, single-spaced).
- The conference proceedings will be published after evaluation by the Scientific Committee.
 Rémy KNAFFOU et Mathis STOCK, « Tourisme » in Dictionnaire de la géographie et de l’espace des sociétés, Belin, Paris, 2003.
 Mathis STOCK, Tourisme, lieux, acteurs, enjeux, Belin, Paris, 2004. Jean-Christophe GAY, « Transports et mise en tourisme du monde », Cahiers de Géographie, 2006.
 Ralph SCHOR, Stéphane MOURLANE, Yvan GASTAUT, Nice cosmopolite, Autrement, Paris, 2010.
 Jean-Marie ANDRE et Marie-Françoise BASLEZ, Voyager dans l’Antiquité, Fayard, Paris, 1993.
 Jean VERDON, Voyager au Moyen-Age, Perrin, Paris, 2007.
 Dick VAN DER CRUYSSE, Le Noble désir de courir le monde. Voyager en Asie au XVII° siècle, Fayard, Paris, 2002.
 Alain CORBIN, Le Territoire du vide. L’Occident et le désir de rivage, Aubier, Paris, 1988.
 Marc BOYER, Ailleurs. Histoire et sociologie du tourisme, l’Harmattan, Paris, 2011.
 Joëlle REDOUANE, L’Orient arabe vu par les voyageurs anglais, ENAL, Alger, 1988.
 Jean-Claude BERCHET, Anthologie des voyageurs français dans le Levant au XIX° siècle, Laffont, Paris, 1985. Jean-Marie CARRE, Voyageurs et écrivains français en Egypte, Institut français d’archéologie orientale, Le Caire, 1990. Jacques LACARRIERE, Méditerranée, Laffont, Paris, 2013. Feriel BEN MAHMOUD, Le Voyage en Orient : de l’âge d’or à l’avènement du tourisme, 1850-1930, Place des Victoires, Paris, 2008. François POUILLON, « Orientalisme », in Dictionnaire de la Méditerranée, Actes Sud, Arles, 2015.
 Christine PELTRE, Retour en Arcadie. Le voyage des artistes français en Grèce au XIX° siècle, Klincksiek, Paris, 1997.
 David WATKIN, Athenian Stuart: Pioneer of the Greek Revival, Harper Collins, New-York, 1982.
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 Lorédana LATIL, Le Festival de Cannes sur la scène internationale, Nouveau Monde éditions, Paris 2005.
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 Anne-Marie EYSSARTEL et Bernard ROCHETTE, Des mondes inventés, les parcs à thème, Ed. de la Villette, Paris, 1992.
 Sylvie CHRISTO FLE-BOURDEIX, Tourisme de réunions et de congrès, Baixas-Balzac, Paris, 2014.
 To this types of tourism, it worth adding the interior tourism, that is, national tourists and international tourism in that tourists cross borders or not. It has been adopted by WOT that it is possible to distinguish three main forms of in any given country. They are interior tourism, receptive tourism and emetting tourism.
 Isabelle SACAREAU, La mondialisation du tourisme, Presses universitaires de Rennes, 2015.
 Guillaume BENOIT et Aline COMEAU (dir), Méditerranée : les perspectives du Plan bleu sur l’environnement et le développement, L’Aube, La Tour d’Aigues, 2005.
 Douglas PEARCE, Géographie du tourisme, Nathan, Paris, 1993. Georges CAZES, Fondements pour une géographie du tourisme et des loisirs, Bréal, Paris, 1992.
 Laurent BOTTI, Ingéniérie du tourisme, De Boek, Bruxelles, 2008.
 Marc BOYER, Histoire générale du tourisme, L’Harmattan, Paris, 2005.
 Jean-Michel DEWAILLY, Tourisme et géographie entre pérégrinité et chaos, L’Harmattan, Paris, 2006.
 Coline PERRIN (dir), Un littoral sans nature ? L’avenir de la Méditerranée face à l’urbanisation, Ecole française de Rome, 2013.
 Eurostat, 2009.
 Christian BATAILLOU (dir), Tourisme, patrimoine, identités, territoires, Presses universitaires de Perpignan, 2010. Brice DUTHION, Les Patrimoines touristiques, De Boek, Bruxelles, 2014.
 Guide bleu, Nice, 1888, cité in Ralph Schor, Nice cosmopolite, op. cit.
 Tourisme éthique et développement, L’Harmattan, Paris, 2001.
 Ahmed EL BAHRI et Pierre-Charles PUPION, « Tourisme solidaire et parties prenantes : le cas de la région de Mahrès », Revue interdisciplinaire, Management, Hommes et Entreprises, 1,10, 2014.
Tunisian -Mediterranean Association for Historical, Social and Economic Studies & Tunisian World Center for Studies, Research, and Development are organizing on 28th, 29th, & 30th November 2017 the Tenth International symposium on the following theme: Tourism : The Phenomenon and its Socio-economic Consequences
The word tourism possesses two senses: the act of travelling for non lucrative reasons and that of travelling for economic purposes. The French dictionaries of the XIXth Century, notably those of Littré and Larousse, underline the characters of “curiosity” and the “idleness” that are the essence of tourists. Montaigne who travelled from June 1580 to November 1581 to France, Switzerland, Germany and Italy appears to be the typical tourist who made a journey for just the pleasure of it: " If it is not fine on the right, I turn on the left (…). did I leave something to see behind me? If yes, I there return”. Het shows his desire to learn: "Making of journeys seems to me a profitable exercise (…). I don't know a better school to form life than constantly exposing our eyes to the diversity of so many other lives, opinions and ways of doings things". In the XXth Century, the international institutions complete the definition while adding the criterion of the time: the tourist is the person who leaves his/her usual residence for a period comprised between 24 hours and one year, in view of devoting themselves to a non gainful activity. The geographers underline the systemic dimension of the phenomenon: it is « a system of actors, practices and spaces»