Haksöz, Cengiz. Between “Unwanted” and “Desired” Populations: Comparing Citizenship and Migration Policies of Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey. Balkan Social Science Review 9:9 (2017): 23-47.
(Europe (excl. Russia and the former Soviet Union) - Balkans, Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey, European Union - Post-socialism, migration, citizenship, nationalism, ethnicity.)
The concept of post-socialism evolved into an “area study” while its “era” content became mostly excluded from the discourse. This paper discusses the necessity of integrative approach in post-socialist studies in order to understand the phenomenon in depth. It offers a comparative study of post-socialist period through the EU trajectories of the three neighboring states: Bulgaria (2007), Greece (1981), and Turkey (candidate since 1999). When influx of refugees is in the primary agenda of the EU politics nowadays, migration and refugees were also among one of the concerns of the post-socialist era in the 1990s. Post-socialist migrations had diverse motives, such as refugees from civil wars as in the case of Former Yugoslavia, asylum seekers from destabilized post-socialist regions, and economically motivated immigrants. Through cases from Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, this paper analyzes the three countries' socio-political trajectories as well as migration and citizenship policies. I evaluate migration of the “co-ethnics” and citizenship policies in the three countries, and show how their similar motives are, how they are closely related with each other and with the dissolution of state socialisms and the EU, and finally, how they produce similar effects. I argue that the EU could not change neither challenged the politics and discourse of “unwanted” vs. “desired” populations in the three states.
Norocel, Ov Cristian. Åkesson at Almedalen: Intersectional Tensions and Normalization of Populist Radical Right Discourse in Sweden. NORA - Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research 25:2 (2017): 91-106.
(Europe (excl. Russia and the former Soviet Union) - Northern Europe, Scandinavia, Sweden - populist radical right - intersectionality - Discourse Historical Approach (DHA).)
This study analyses the populist radical right discourse of the Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna, SD), examining how Jimmie Åkesson, the SD chairperson, conceptualized gendered social positions in the folkhem ([Swedish] people’s home) in his annual speeches in Almedalen, since the SD entered the Swedish Parliament in 2010 to date. Attention is being paid to whose voices are allowed to come forth and in which manner this is done, and to how inequalities intersecting gender and ethnicity are explained and reproduced, as means to normalize populist radical right discourse in Sweden. Theoretically, the study rests on the conceptualization of the populist radical right as a thin-centred ideology, which is contingently adapted to national politics, to which it ads “intersectionality from above” as a specific analytical perspective. The discourse-historical approach (DHA) provides the methodological tools for the analysis and facilitates its contextual positioning. The article contributes analytically to the field, shedding light on how, in the context of populist radical right discourse, welfare chauvinist appeals are employed formally to acknowledge the importance of gender equality in Sweden, and are used as a device to contour two antithetic entities: the supposedly gender-equal Swedish ethnic majority as the opposite of the allegedly deeply patriarchal migrant Other. The article also contributes empirically to the study of the populist radical right in Sweden. It provides a more nuanced picture of the party’s ideological transformations in what is envisaged to be their ideological normalization—from fringe nationalism (antidemocratic national socialism) and outright racism to welfare chauvinism and cultural racism (Islamophobic exclusionary nationalism) in conservative clothing.
Goikoetxea, Jule. Privatizing Democracy: Global Ideals, European Politics and Basque Territories. Oxford: Peter Lang Ltd, 2017.
(Europe (excl. Russia and the former Soviet Union) - Basque Country, Spain - Globalization, Democratization.)
Democratization is a process of collective emancipation through self-government. Continuous political contestation is essential for emancipation but, in order to know which strategies and conditions will emancipate us, we also need to know which ones subjugate us. Political mechanisms with the capacity to modulate our individual and collective bodies and make them docile tend to be close relatives of those which make us equal and free.
Drawing on the latest theories concerning globalization and democracy, this book argues that postnational and postsovereign multilevel governance regimes, including the European Union, should be understood as mechanisms of global capitalism aimed at privatizing democracy. Through a detailed applied analysis of the Basque case, the author illustrates how democratization is closely linked to ideas about territory, collective empowerment and institutional political capacity.
Democratization always takes place partially: it never 'ends'. Contrary to the dominant thinking, this book argues that the incomplete nature of democratization is a positive aspect, with perpetual conflict leading to perpetual change. This is precisely what allows, and obliges, each generation to shape its own forms of emancipation.
Gilligan, Chris. Northern Ireland and the crisis of anti-racism: rethinking racism and sectarianism. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2017.
(Global, Transnational, Comparative - Northern Ireland; USA; British Empire; - racism and nationalism - ethnic and racial studies; Irish Studies; British Empire.)
Racism and sectarianism makes an important contribution to the discussion on the 'crisis of anti-racism' in the United Kingdom. The book looks at two phenomena that are rarely examined together - racism and sectarianism. The author argues that thinking critically about sectarianism and other racisms in Northern Ireland helps to clear up some confusions regarding 'race' and ethnicity. Many of the prominent themes in debates on racism and anti-racism in the UK today - the role of religion, racism and 'terrorism', community cohesion - were central to discussions on sectarianism in Northern Ireland during the conflict and peace process. The book provides a sustained critique of the Race Relations paradigm that dominates official anti-racism and sketches out some elements of an emancipatory anti-racism.
Gapova, Elena. “Things to Have for a Belarusian”: Rebranding the Nation via Online Participation. Digital Icons 17:17 (2017): 41-71.
(Russia and the former Soviet Union - Global - online nationalism, participatory culture, consumer activism, digital media - cyberspace (digital media) - digital/social media content analysis)
The paper focuses on online consumer activism targeting Belarusian 'vyshyvanka', i.e. commodities with geometric ornament. Its reinvention was spurred by a global trend of nation branding and by post-socialist nation building. The consumption of ornamented products incites ‘rebranding of the nation’ which gets resemanticized and reinvented via online user-led content creation, as prosumers, often younger cosmopolitan urbanites, like, share, discuss, remix and perform other kinds of digital manipulations with recognizable geometric imagery. In their online incarnations, ornamented products become a semiotic space where ideas about nationhood are explored. At the same time, as online communities reinvent the meaning and socially reinforce the use of ornamented commodities, they re-create their group solidarity and social cohesion. The mechanics of this integration relies on the ability of some digital units to serve as memes and pointers, with the help of which, users can become aware of each other.