Stergar, Rok. Introduction to the Forum 'The Adriatic, the Alps, and the Danube: Identities, Categories of Identification, and Identifications'. Austrian History Yearbook 49 (2018): 17-22.
(Europe (excl. Russia and the former Soviet Union) - Habsburg Empire - Ethnic Nationalism - Identifications - Historical Analysis - .)
The introduction to an AHY forum with five articles dealing with identifications in the Habsburg Empire:
Mevissen, Robert Shields. “Meandering Circumstances, Fluid Associations: Shaping Riverine Transformations in the Late Habsburg Monarchy.” Austrian History Yearbook 49 (2018): 23–40. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0067237818000061
Almasy, Karin. “The Linguistic and Visual Portrayal of Identifications in Slovenian and German Picture Postcards (1890–1920).” Austrian History Yearbook 49 (2018): 41–57. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0067237818000073
Tomić, Filip. “Serbs in Croatia and Slavonia 1908–14: The Contested Construction, Employment, and Reception of an Ethnic Category.” Austrian History Yearbook 49 (2018): 58–72. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0067237818000085
Jeličić, Ivan. “The Typographers’ Community of Fiume: Combining a Spirit of Collegiality, Class Identity, Local Patriotism, Socialism, and Nationalism(S).” Austrian History Yearbook 49 (2018): 73–86.
Kosi, Jernej. “The Imagined Slovene Nation and Local Categories of Identification: ‘Slovenes’ in the Kingdom of Hungary and Postwar Prekmurje.” Austrian History Yearbook 49 (2018): 87–102. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0067237818000103
Clement, Victoria. Learning to Become Turkmen: Literacy, Language and Power. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2018.
(Russia and the former Soviet Union - Turkmenistan, Central Asia, Soviet Union - National Identity - Modernity, Language politics, Education - Qualitative Analysis, Interviews, Archival Research.)
The Turkmen of Central Asia strove to make their society “modern” over the past century. Yet as political circumstances fluctuated the parameters by which modern was defined as well as the concepts of learning, literacy, and power were ever changing. These fluctuations were connected to recognition of change in the world and a reconsideration of tradition; a sense of the individual and his or her rights in contrast to group’s rights; and possibilities for societal growth. The Turkmen experience offers the opportunity to revisit the concept of modernity and the processes of becoming modern and to ask what they mean in specific historic contexts.
This study examines the history of Turkmen as they evolved from an incongruous set of tribes at the end of the nineteenth century to a sovereign state at the start of the twenty-first century. By examining the long term development of Turkmen identity and cultural-political practice, this study places the Turkmens’ experiences with modernity into a context that will help readers make sense of these complex processes. The study probes the intersections between cultural and social power in the historical context of shifting politics through the transformation, acquisition, or loss of cultural knowledge: namely literacy, learning, and Islam. These intersections are not recent phenomena but have drawn new attention since the end of the Soviet Union and the establishment of Turkmenistan’s sovereignty.
Meadows, Bryan. National Reproduction in National Claims: A Case Study of Discursive Power in an Adult English as a Second Language (ESL) Classroom Setting. Linguistics and Education 45 (2018): 83-91.
(The Americas - Nationalism, Power, Transnationalism - Discursive Nationalism - Qualitative Analysis - Discourse Analysis.)
While the language education scholarship has embraced transnational perspectives, classroom discourse at the practitioner level arguably remains locked within a national paradigm. This study serves to bridge this disconnect between academic and folk perspectives on nationalism by developing an empirical account of how adult participants in a single ESL (English as a Second Language) classroom determine the legitimacy of national claims during instructional talk. Grounded in theories of discursive nationalism, a coding analysis of primary (e.g., classroom discourse) and secondary (e.g., group discussions, interviews, observations, and member checks) data sets identifies the discursive components by which participants collectively (de)legitimize claims about nations. This systematic account can guide transformative discussions of how to reconfigure language classroom discourse according to a transnational framework that empowers learner cultural and linguistic practices.
Leerssen, Joep (ed.). Encyclopedia of Romantic Nationalism in Europe. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2018.
(Global, Transnational, Comparative - Europe, Celtic nations, Germanic nations, Jewish nation, Illyria, Low Countries, Romance nations, Russia, Turkey, Slavic nations, Turanian nations, other European nations and regions - Romantic Nationalism - Cultural Nationalism, Ethno-Symbolism, Transnationalism - Encyclopedia of Transnational and Intermedial Networks - Network Visualization, Documentation.)
This encyclopedia documents the presence and impact of nationalized cultural consciousness in European nationalism. It tracks how intellectuals, historians, philologists, novelists, poets, painters, folklorists, and composers, in an intensely collaborative transnational network, articulated the national identities and aspirations that would go on to determine European history and politics, with effects that are still felt today.
Edited by Joep Leerssen, in cooperation with almost 350 authors from dozens of countries, this encyclopedia gives a clear idea of the intricate (transnational and intermedial) networks and entanglements in which all aspects of Romantic Nationalism are connected.
Gunn, Geoffrey. Monarchical Manipulation in Cambodia: France, Japan, and the Sihanouk Crusade for Independence. Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2018.
(Asia (excl. Middle East and Turkey) - Cambodia, French Indochina - Decolonization & Postcoloniality - Democracy & Nationalism, Violence and Conflict - Archival research - Interviews.)
One figure especially strides across modern Cambodian history – Norodom Sihanouk. But this is not a biography of Sihanouk; the focus is upon the final decades of the French protectorate, the rise of a counter-elite and winning of Cambodia’s independence. Deeply embedded Khmer cultural conventions, the interplay of charismatic power and patronage, and manipulation of the 1,000-year-old monarchy are central to this book, as is indigenous resistance, Buddhist activism, French cultural creationism, radical republicanism, Thai recidivism and wartime Japanese machinations. The skill of the young Sihanouk in navigating between Vichy France, Japanese militarists, republican opportunists, armed rural insurgency and French proconsuls is brought to life by a range of new archival documentation – but so too how a country of such grace and natural bounty became associated with mass murder and genocide. The long political prelude as exposed in this book makes the now clichéd ‘tragedy of Cambodian history’ much more comprehensible.
Goalwin, Gregory. Religion and Nation are One': Social Identity Complexity and the Roots of Religious Intolerance in Turkish Nationalism. Social Science History 42:2 (2018): 161-182.
(The Middle East and Turkey (excl. North Africa) - Turkey; Nationalism; Religion; Islam; Minorities; Social Identity Complexity - Social-psychology - Religious Nationalism - Comparative-Historical.)
Turkish nationalism has long been an enigma for scholars interested in the formation of national identity. The nationalist movement that succeeded in crafting the Republic of Turkey relied upon rhetoric that defined the nation in explicitly secular, civic, and territorial terms. Though the earliest scholarship on Turkish nationalism supported this perspective, more recent research has pointed to Turkey's efforts to homogenize the new state as evidence of the importance of ethnicity, and particularly religion, in constructing Turkish national identity. Yet this marked mismatch between political rhetoric and politics on the ground is perplexing. If Turkey was meant to be a secular and civic state, why did Turkish nationalist policies place such a heavy emphasis on ethnic and religious purity? Moreover, why did religious identity become such a salient characteristic for determining membership in the national community and for defining national identity? This article draws upon historical research and social identity complexity theory to analyze this seeming dichotomy between religious and civic definitions of the Turkish nation. I argue that the subjective overlap between religious and civic ingroups during the late Ottoman Empire and efforts by nationalists to rally the populace through religious appeals explains the persistence of religious definitions of the nation despite the Turkish nationalist movement's civic rhetoric, and accounts for much of the Turkish state's religiously oriented policies and exclusionary practices toward religious minorities in its early decades.
Goalwin, Gregory. Population exchange and the politics of ethno-religious fear: the EU-Turkey agreement on Syrian refugees in historical perspective. Patterns of Prejudice 52:2-3 (2018): 121-134.
(Europe (excl. Russia and the former Soviet Union) - Population Exchange; Refugee Crisis; Syria; Turkey; European Union; EU-Turkey Agreement on Refugees; Migration - Migration - European Union; Borders and Territoriality - Comparative-Historical.)
In March of 2016 the EU and Turkey reached an agreement in which all refugees who reach Greece through unauthorized means would be returned to Turkey. The deal is the latest effort to ‘stem the tide’ of refugees who have fled the Middle East. Yet this is not the first time negotiations between Europe and Turkey have resulted in an agreement to exchange problematic populations. As part of the negotiations ending WWI, Turkey and Europe agreed to a transfer of populations in which Christians in Turkey would be sent to Greece in exchange for Greece’s small population of Muslims. This project draws upon historical research and contemporary policy analysis to compare the 2016 EU-Turkey Refugee Agreement and the 1923 Greco-Turkish population exchange. A comparative approach reveals the European response to this refugee crisis is not merely an echo of past sentiments, but the product of patterns of prejudice that have structured relationships between majority populations and religious minority and refugee populations in Europe and Turkey alike.
Lajosi, Krisztina. Staging the Nation. Opera and Nationalism in 19th-Century Hungary . Leiden-Boston: Brill, 2018.
(Europe (excl. Russia and the former Soviet Union) - Habsburg Empire, Hungary, Transylvania - Cultural Nationalism, Ethnic Nationalism - Opera, Theater - Textual Analysis, Discourse Analysis.)
Opera was a prominent political forum and a potent force for nineteenth-century nationalism. As one of the most popular forms of entertainment, opera could mobilize large crowds and became the locus of ideological debates about nation-building. Despite its crucial role in national movements, opera has received little attention in the context of nationalism. In Staging the Nation: Opera and Nationalism in 19th-Century Hungary, Krisztina Lajosi examines the development of Hungarian national thought by exploring the theatrical and operatic practices that have shaped historical consciousness. Lajosi combines cultural history, political thought, and the history of music theater, and highlights the role of the opera composer Ferenc Erkel (1810-1893) in institutionalizing national opera and turning opera-loving audiences into a national public.
Szabó, Gabriella, Ov Cristian Norocel, and Márton Bene. Media Visibility and Inclusion of Radical Right Populism in Hungary and Romania. Problems of Post-Communism (2018): 1-14.
(Europe (excl. Russia and the former Soviet Union) - Central and Eastern Europe; Hungary; Romania - radical right populism - political communication - network analysis - frames analysis; quantitative analysis.)
This article investigates the discursive opportunities for radical-right populist politics in Hungary and Romania. We argue that it is important to assess whether the discursive activities of radical-right media are reflected and included in the chains of discussion in the public sphere. The involvement and visibility of radical-right media in news coverage is considered a cue for their acceptance as legitimate actors in the wider media ecosystem, even when other media may not accept their interpretations. Our findings tell two different stories in the compared countries. In Hungary, we note that radical-right media are to a certain degree incorporated into the wider media networks, while in Romania, radical-right media are observed to be in isolated positions in both of the media networks we examined.