American named 弗兰德

Zachary Scarlett's picture

Dear Colleagues,

I am hoping that someone can help me identify the American whose Chinese name is 弗兰德.

Here’s some context: I am currently working on a manuscript on Chinese internationalism during the Cultural Revolution. In 1967, there was a conference held in Beijing to discuss the various ways that Liu Shaoqi had stymied international revolution. At this conference, an American named 弗兰德 gave a speech criticizing the American Communist Party for being too revisionist and for having its members read Liu’s How to be a Good Communist. The speech was reprinted verbatim in the Red Guard newspaper 外事红旗.

A colleague suggested that this might be Frank Coe, but I always understood Coe's Chinese name to be 弗兰克. If anyone could point me in the right direction, I would be grateful.


Zachary Scarlett

Categories: Query, Research

Dear Zachary,

Considering the limited knowledge of the Red Guards about the outside world and foreign languages, my hypothesis is that it might be just a mistranslation of "American friend".

Best wishes,


Dear Zachary Scarlett,

If no one on this list knows 佛兰德's English name, one person who might is the Chinese historian 何蜀. He mentions the same incident in this article .


My guess, and it’s only a guess, would be Liebel Bergman. I am afraid I cannot check this as my files are in New York and I am currently in Hanoi. But Bergman was an anti CPUSA Communist later affiliated with the Revolutionary Union/Revolutionary Communist Party that was Maoist. He also lived in China during the 1960s. His papers are at the Taimiment Library at NYU.

He was married to Vick Garvin who was also in China during that time.

I’m right


A. Tom Grunfeld
SUNY Distinguished Teaching Professor, Emeritus
Empire State College/SUNY
100 Morton Street, #PHBW
New York, New York 10014
Tel: 1.917.957.4119

The identity of the person you are looking for, Zachary, is likely to be Robert Friend, a/k/a 罗伯特•弗兰德!
Merry Christmas,