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CALL FOR BOOK CHAPTERS
Environmental Security in Africa: Conflicts, Politics and Development
Elisha J. Dung, Ph.D., Leonard S. Bombom, Ph.D. and Augustine Avwunudiogba, Ph.D. (Editors)
There is no straightforward definition of Environmental Security. However, there is the general agreement that the concepts of Environmental Security arose from the synergetic combination of two important terms – Environment and Security. In this context the environment is broadly defined as the milieu of natural and human constructed spaces that forms the organizational fabric of human production. Security on the other hand, can be generally seen as the condition that houses the environment to ensure optimum human development. Thus, Environmental Security which is crucial to human development emanates from different disciplines and schools of thought. As Barnett (2009) puts it “The way a person or a group understands each of these concepts informs their understanding of the combined concept of environmental security”.
In recent years, environmentally induced insecurity or related problems have taken more serious dimensions in both scope and intensity especially on the African continent. Climate change, environmental degradation, loss of biodiversity, overuse or over exploitation of non-renewable environmental resources, resources scarcity, lack of or inhibited access to resources, deforestation and many other factors have either directly or indirectly caused, aided and abetted or prolonged conflicts in Africa. As a result, the political space has become congested with environmental security issues, which invariably bear tremendous influence on national development.
The concept of environmental security is broad and includes concerns about both natural and human impact on the environment and its resulting consequences on social and political order at local, national or regional levels. The environment is that component of the earth that supports and provides necessary life-sustaining resources for human development. The health of the human enterprise therefore is closely tied to the health of the environment. Similarly, human security is equally interrelated with the security of the environment. This human-environment relationship is therefore important to human development at all levels. The consensus among researchers and scientists is that the human agency is the most important driver of environmental change and is therefore at the center of environmental security concerns. This is in spite of the fact that environmental change could also be a natural process. The significance of the human element is buttressed by the fact that at the heart of environmental security is politics - environmental policy, governance, and institutions. Issues of vulnerability, resilience and adaptation are also important considerations in environmental security. Together, they all form part of the human response to environmental change and security that determines, to a large extent, the occurrence, nature, scale, intensity and duration of environmental conflicts.
Violent conflicts arising from environmental concerns are many on the African continent, which range from farmers-herders’ conflicts, inter-communal conflicts, and international conflicts and tensions, often based on issues of access to scarce environmental resources. Politics of environmental security determine the extent to which these conflicts may be contained to create the space for local, national and regional development. Conflicts, politics and development are therefore important correlates of environmental security.
This book seeks to systematically examine environmental security issues in Africa especially in regards to environmental conflicts, politics and national development. The editors therefore request researchers, members of environmental advocacy groups, civil societies, government agencies and non-governmental organizations and interested persons to contribute chapters to this book project. Some suggestions on topics have been made but interested contributors should feel free to suggest other topics of interest within the general theme of the book.
CONCEPTUAL AND THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS
Defining Environmental Security/Understanding Environmental Security
Conceptual/Theoretical Frameworks for Environmental Security
The Geography of Environmental Conflicts
The Causes and Dimensions of Environmental Conflicts
Case Studies of Environmental Conflicts
Climate Change, Environmental Change and Environmental Conflicts
Vulnerability to and Resilience against Environmental Conflicts
Adaptations to Environmental Change as Panacea to Environmental Conflicts
(Environmental) Conflict Analysis
Impact Assessment/Analysis of Environmental Conflicts
POLITICS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY
Environmental Laws and Regulations
Environmental Policy and Governance
Access to Environmental Resources
Environmental Resources Control
Environmental Resources Exploitation and Degradation
Environmental Biodiversity and Loss
Environmental Resources Management (Preservation, Conservation, Protection, etc)
ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY AND DEVELOPMENT
The Environment-Economic Development Nexus
The Environment-Social Development Nexus
The Environmental-Cultural Development Nexus
Environment, National Security and National Development
ABOUT THE EDITORS:
Elisha Jasper Dung is a Professor and Coordinator of Geography in the Department of Advancement Studies at Alabama State University, Montgomery, Alabama. He holds a B.S in Geography and an M.S in Environmental Resources Planning from the University of Jos, Nigeria. Dr Dung holds a Ph.D. in Geography from Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, and an MA in Geography from the University of Northern Iowa, USA. Dr. Dung teaches courses in World Regional Geography, Cultural Geography, Regional Geography of North America, Computer Applications in the Social Sciences, and the Geography of Africa. He has published on African Diaspora, bilateral and multilateral cooperation between Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, African migration, Caribbean out-migration, and the Implications of Land cover and Landscape change Dynamics in the Central High Plains (CHP) of the United States. His book, Human Trafficking: Global History and Perspectives, co-edited with Prof. Avwunudiogba of California State University, Stanislaus, has just been published by Lexington Books (2021).
Leonard Sitji Bombom is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Geography and Planning, University of Jos, Nigeria. He holds M.Sc in Environmental and Resources Planning from the University of Jos, M.A from the University of Northern Iowa, USA and Certificate in GIS and PhD from the Oklahoma State University, USA. Dr. Bombom teaches courses in Geographical Information System (GIS), Quantitative and Research Methods, Transportation and Tourism Studies in the Department of Geography, and also teaches Conflict Analysis at the Centre for Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution, University of Jos. He is a Senior Research Fellow at the Anthony Nyong Centre of Excellence for Climate Change in the University of Jos. He has published many peer-reviewed articles in international and reputable journals. Some of his recent publications include environmental security concerns resulting from oil extraction in Nigeria’s Niger-Delta region, African Diaspora, and mapping the human trafficking trade in and from Africa.
Dr. Augustine Avwunudiogba is a professor of geography in the Department of Anthropology, Geography and Ethnic Studies, California State University Stanislaus. He holds a BSc (Hons) and MSc in geography from the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria, an MA in geographical studies from Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, Illinois. Dr. Avwunudiogba holds a PhD in geography from the University of Texas at Austin, Texas. He teaches courses in Geographic Problems of the Developing World, World Regional Geography, Regional Geography of Africa, and Regional Geography of Mexico and Central America. His current research focuses on the development issues and challenges in Africa and Latin America. His most recent publications include a co-edited book on Human Trafficking: Global History and Perspectives (Lexington Books, 2021), coauthored chapter/chapters in edited volumes: China in Africa: Between Imperialism and Partnership in Humanitarian Development (Lexington Books, 2021), African Migrants and the Refugee Crisis (Springer, 2021), The Challenges of Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons in Africa (Springer, 2021), Fidel Castro and Africa’s Liberation Struggle (Lexington Books, 2020), and Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean: The Case for Bilateral and Multilateral Cooperation (Lexington Books, 2018). Dr. Avwunudiogba is a member of the African Specialty, and Latin America Specialty group of the American Association of Geographers.