Bibliography - Lynching & Racial Violence

A working bibliography of lynching and racial violence

(Last Updated May 10, 2016)


Thirty Years of Lynching in the United States 1889-1919,  (New York: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 1919).

Ann Alexander, “Like an Evil Wind: The Roanoke Riot of 1893 and the Lynching of Thomas Smith,” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 100 (1992): 173-206.

Shawn Leigh Alexander, “Vengeance without Justice, Injustice without Retribution: The Afro-American Council's Struggle against Racial Violence,” Great Plains Quarterly 27, no. 2  (2007): 117-33.

Sandy Alexandre, The Properties of Violence: Claims to Ownership in Representations of Lynching (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2012).

Jessie Daniel Ames, “Can Newspapers Harmonize Their Editorial Policy on Lynching and Their News Stories on Lynching?,” Reprinted in Southern Newspaper Publishers' Association Bulletin 65 (1936).

Devery S. Anderson, Emmett Till: The Murder That Shocked the World and Propelled the Civil Rights Movement (Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2015).

Dora Apel, Imagery of Lynching: Black Men, White Women, and the Mob (New Brunswick, N.J. ;: London : Rutgers University Press, 2004).

Julie Buckner Armstrong, Mary Turner and the Memory of Lynching (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2011).

Bruce E. Baker, “Lynch Law Reveresed: The Rape of Lula Sherman, the Lynching of Manse Waldrop, and the Debate over Lynching in the 1880s,” American Nineteenth Century History 6, no. 3  (2005): 273-93.

———, This Mob Will Surely Take My Life: Lynchings in the Carolinas, 1871-1947 (London; New York: Continuum, 2008).

Janice Barrow, Hittlinger, “Lynching in the Mid-Atlantic, 1882-1940,” American Nineteenth Century History 6, no. 3  (2005): 241-71.

E. M. Beck, and E. Tolnay Stewart, “The Killing Fields of the Deep South: The Market for Cotton and the Lynching of Blacks, 1882-1930,” American Sociological Review 55, no. 4  (1990): 526-39.

Gail Bederman, “Civilization,’ the Decline of Middle-Class Manliness, and Ida B. Wells’s Antilynching Campaign, 1892–1894,” Radical History Review 52 (1991): 5-30.

Manfred Berg, Popular Justice: A History of Lynching in America (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2011).

Patricia Bernstein, The First Waco Horror: The Lynching of Jesse Washington and the Rise of the NAACP, 1st ed., Centennial Series of the Association of Former Students, Texas A&M University; No. 101 (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2005).

L. J. Brown, “Philosophy of Lynching,” The Voice of the Negro 1, no. 11  (1904): 555-59.

Mary Jane Brown, Eradicating This Evil: Women in the American Anti-Lynching Movement, 1892-1940, Studies in African American History and Culture (New York: Garland Pub., 2000).

John E. Bruce, The Blood Red Record (Albany: Argus Company, 1900).

W. Fitzhugh Brundage, “To Howl Loudly: John Mitchell and the Campaign against Lynching,” Canadian Review of American Studies 22 (1991): 325-42.

———, “Mob Violence: North and South, 1865-1940,” Georgia Historical Quarterly 75 (1991): 748-70.

———, Lynching in the New South: Georgia and Virginia, 1880-1930 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993).

———, “Race, Class, and Southern Racial Violence,” in Identity and Intolerance: Nationalism, Racism, and Xenophobia in Germany and the United States, ed. Norbert Finzsch and Dietmar Schirmer (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 137-54.

———, “Conclusion: Reflections on Lynching Scholarship,” American Nineteenth Century History 6, no. 3  (2005): 401-14.

Richard Allan Buckelew, “Racial Violence in Arkansas: Lynchings and Mob Rule, 1860--1930” (University of Arkansas, 1999).

Louis E. Burnham, and Freedom Associates., Behind the Lynching of Emmett Louis Till (New York: Freedom Associates, 1955).

Adam Burns, “Without Due Process: Albert E. Pillsbury and the Hoar Anti-Lynching Bill,” American Nineteenth Century History 11, no. 2  (2010): 233-52.

Dominic J. Capeci, Jr., and Jack C. Knight, “Reckoning with Violence: W. E. B. Du Bois and the 1906 Atlanta Race Riot,” Journal of Southern History 62, no. 4  (1996): 727.

William D. Carrigan, The Making of a Lynching Culture: Violence and Vigilantism in Central Texas, 1836-1916 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004).

———, “Lynching Reconsidered: New Perspectives in the Study of Mob Violence,” American Nineteenth Century History 6, no. 3  (2005): 221-25.

———, ed. Lynching Reconsidered: New Perspectives in the Study of Mob Violence (New York: Routledge, 2007), Pages.

Edouardo Casanover, ”"Southern Lynchings" [Letter to the Editor],” Charlotte Daily Observer, June 17, 1899.

George W. Chamlee, “Is Lynching Ever Defensible?,” Forum  (1927).

George T. Chapman, ”Murder Not Lynching,” New York Times, April 2, 1899 1899, 25.

Claude Andrew Clegg, Troubled Ground: A Tale of Murder, Lynching, and Reckoning in the New South (Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 2010).

James L. Crouthamel, “The Springfield Race Riot of 1908,” Journal of Negro History 45 (1960): 164-81.

Charles Crowe, “Racial Massacre in Atlanta, September 22, 1906,” Journal of Negro History 54 (1969).

Jane Dailey, “Deference and Violence in the Postbellum Urban South: Manners and Massacres in Danville, Virginia,” Journal of Southern History 63, no. 3  (1997): 553-90.

Simone W. Davis, “The 'Weak Race' and the Winchester: Political Voices in Pamphlets of Ida B. Wells-Barnett,” Legacy 12 (1995): 77-89.

Thomas Dixon, and John David Smith, The Flaming Sword (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2005).

Frederick Douglass, “Lynching Black People Because They Are Black,” Christian Educator 5, no. 3  (1894): 95-108.

Philip Dray, At the Hands of Persons Unknown: The Lynching of Black America (New York: Random House, 2002).

Kristina DuRocher, Raising Racists: The Socialization of White Children in the Jim Crow South, New Directions in Southern History (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2011).

Mark Ellis, “Joel Spingarn's 'Constructive Programme' and the Wartime Antilynching Bill of 1918,” Journal of Policy History 4, no. 2  (1992): 134-61.

Crystal Nicole Feimster, Southern Horrors: Women and the Politics of Rape and Lynching (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2009).

Paul Finkelman, Lynching, Racial Violence, and Law (New York: Garland, 1992).

Terence Finnegan, “Lynching and Political Power in Mississippi and South Carolina,” in Under Sentence of Death: Essays on Lynching in the South, ed. W. Fitzhugh Brundage (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997), 189-218.

Norbert Finzsch, and Dietmar Schirmer, eds., Identity and Intolerance: Nationalism, Racism, and Xenophobia in Germany and the United States (New York Cambridge University Press, 1998).

T. Thomas Fortune, “Is the White South Civilized?,” AME Zion Quarterly Review 1, no. 4  (1891): 283-89.

———, “Mob Law in the South,” Independent 49, no. 2537  (1897): 900-01.

———, ”Editorial: Lynching Statistics,” Boston Transcript, June, 19 1899, 14.

———, ”Mob Violence in the South: Its Effect Upon the Temper of Thinking Afro-Americans,” New York Sun, May 2, 1899.

———, ”Lynching Statistics: "The Usual Crime" Subterfuge Used as a Shield to Excuse Murder,” New York Sun, June 4, 1899.

———, ”The Lynching of Sam Hose,” New York Sun, June 20, 1899.

Ute Frevert, “The Taming of the Noble Ruffian: Male Violence and Dueling in Early Modern and Modern Germany,” in Men and Violence: Gender, Honor, and Rituals in Modern Europe and America, ed. Pieter Spierenburg (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1998), 37-63.

David A. Gerber, “Lynching and Law and Order: Origins and Passage of the Ohio Anti-Lynching Law of 1894,” Ohio History 83, no. 1  (1974): 33-50.

Paula  Giddings, Ida: A Sword among Lions (New York: Amistad, 2008).

David F. Godshalk, “William J. Northen's Public and Personal Struggles against Lynching,” in Jumpin' Jim Crow, ed. Jane Dailey, Gilmore Glenda Elizabeth and Simon Bryant (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), 140-61.

Jacqueline Denise Goldsby, A Spectacular Secret: Lynching in American Life and Literature (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006).

Ken Gonzales-Day, Lynching in the West: 1850–1935 (Durham: Duke University Press, 2006).

Donald L. Grant, The Anti-Lynching Movement: 1883-1932 (San Francisco: R and E Research Associates, 1975).

Richard T. Greener, ”Professor Greener Upon the Situation: A Scholar and a Lawyer Speaks -- Jim Crow Cars and Lynchings, Etcetera,” Voice of Missions 1896, 3.

Darren E. Grem, “Sam Jones, Sam Hose, and the Theology of Racial Violence,” Georgia Historical Quarterly 90 (2006): 35-61.

Francis J. Grimké, The Lynching of Negroes in the South. Its Causes and Remedy (Washington D. C.1899).

Sandra Gunning, Race, Rape, and Lynching: The Red Record of American Literature, 1890-1912 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).

Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, Revolt against Chivalry: Jessie Daniel Ames and the Women's Campaign against Lynching (New York: Columbia University Press, 1979).

Trudier Harris-Lopez, Exorcising Blackness: Historical and Literary Lynching and Burning Rituals (Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1984).

Albert Bushnell Hart, The Southern South (rpt. 1912, New York: Da Capo Press, 1969).

Karlos K. Hill, Beyond the Rope: The Impact of Lynching on Black Cultural Memory (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2016).

Walter T. Howard, Lynchings: Extralegal Violence in Florida During the 1930s (Selinsgrove: Susquehanna University Press, 1995).

Kenneth Robert Janken, White: The Biography of Walter White, Mr. NAACP (New York: New Press: Distributed by W.W. Norton, 2003).

Susan Jean, “'Warranted' Lynchings: Narratives of Mob Violence in White Southern Newspapers, 1880-1940,” American Nineteenth Century History 6, no. 3  (2005): 351-72.

Mat Johnson, Warren Pleece, and Clem Robins, Incognegro (New York: Vertigo/DC Comics, 2008).

Gilbert Jonas, Freedom's Sword: The NAACP and the Struggle against Racism in America, 1909-1969 (New York; London: Routledge, 2005).

J. A. Jones, “Mob Law -- Is It Ever Justifiable?,” AME Church Review 16, no. 1  (1899): 135-39.

Amos Paul Kennedy, and Jubilee Press., Strange Fruit: Words Protesting Lynchings and Burnings (Oak Park, Ill.: Jubilee Press, 1994).

David F. Krugler, 1919, the Year of Racial Violence: How African Americans Fought Back (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2014).

Stephen J. Leonard, Lynching in Colorado, 1859-1919 (Boulder, Colo.: University Press of Colorado, 2002).

James H. Madison, A Lynching in the Heartland: Race and Memory in America, 1st ed. (New York: Palgrave, 2001).

Clare V. McKanna, “Seeds of Destruction: Homicide, Race, and Justice in Omaha, 1880-1920,” Journal of American Ethnic History 14 (1994): 65-90.

———, Homicide, Race and Justice in the American West, 1880-1920 (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2002).

———, “Black Enclaves of Violence: Race and Homicide in Great Plains Cities, 1890-1920,” Great Plains Quarterly 23 (2003): 147-59.

Christopher C. Meyers, “"Killing Them by the Wholesale": A Lynching Rampage in South Georgia,” Georgia Historical Quarterly 90, no. 2  (2006): 214-35.

Ericka Marie Miller, The Other Reconstruction: Where Violence and Womanhood Meet in the Writings of Wells-Barnett, Grimké, and Larsen (New York: Garland Pub., 2000).

Koritha Mitchell, Living with Lynching: African American Lynching Plays, Performance, and Citizenship, 1890-1930, The New Black Studies Series (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2011).

Norton H. Moses, Lynching and Vigilantism in the United States : An Annotated Bibliography, Bibliographies and Indexes in American History, No. 34 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1997).

Orlando Patterson, Rituals of Blood: Consequences of Slavery in Two American Centuries (New York: Basic Books, 1988).

Michael J. Pfeifer, “The Ritual of Lynching: Extralegal Justice in Missouri, 1890-1942,” Gateway Heritage 13 (1993): 22-33.

———, Rough Justice: Lynching and American Society, 1874-1947 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004).

———, “Wisconsin's Last Decade of Lynching, 1881-91: Law and Violence in the Postbellum Midwest,” American Nineteenth Century History 6, no. 3  (2005): 227-39.

Albert E. Pillsbury, “A Brief Inquiry into a Federal Remedy for Lynching,” Harvard Law Review 15, no. 9  (1902): 707-13.

Harriet Pollack, and Christopher Metress, Emmett Till in Literary Memory and Imagination, Southern Literary Studies (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2008).

Anne P. Rice, Witnessing Lynching: American Writers Respond (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2003).

———, Witnessing Lynching: American Writers Respond (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2003).

Hannah Rosen, Terror in the Heart of Freedom: Citizenship, Sexual Violence, and the Meaning of Race in the Postemancipation South (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2008).

Ashraf H. A. Rushdy, American Lynching (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012).

———, The End of American Lynching (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2012).

Herbert Shapiro, White Violence and Black Response: From Reconstruction to Montgomery (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988).

———, “Racism and Empire: A Perspective on a New Era of American History,” in Identity and Intolerance: Nationalism, Racism, and Xenophobia in Germany and the United States, ed. Norbert Finzsch and Dietmar Schirmer (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 155-74.

Sarah L. Silkey, Black Woman Reformer: Ida B. Wells, Lynching, and Transatlantic Activism (Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press, 2014).

Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, Noralee Frankel, and S. Dye Nancy, “African-American Women's Networks in the Anti-Lynching Crusade,” in Gender, Class, Race, and Reform in the Progressive Era (Lexington, Ky: University Press of Kentucky, 1991).

Mamie Till-Mobley, and Chris Benson, Death of Innocence: The Story of the Hate Crime That Changed America, 1st ed. (New York: Random House, 2003).

Stewart E. Tolnay, and E. M. Beck, “Black Flight: Lethal Violence and The Great Migration, 1900-1930,” Social Science History 14 (1990).

Stewart Emory Tolnay, and E. M. Beck, A Festival of Violence: An Analysis of Southern Lynchings, 1882-1930 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1995).

Gary Totten, African American Travel Narratives from Abroad: Mobility and Cultural Work in the Age of Jim Crow (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2015).

Tuskegee Institute., and John W. Kitchens, Tuskegee Institute News Clippings File, 1899-1966 (Inclusive), microform.

William M. Tuttle, Jr., Race Riot: Chicago in the Red Summer of 1919 (New York: Atheneum, 1970).

Christopher Waldrep, “War of Words: The Controversy over the Definition of Lynching, 1899-1940,” Journal of Southern History 66 (2000): 75-100.

———, The Many Faces of Judge Lynch: Extralegal Violence and Punishment in America (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002).

———, “'Raw, Quivering Flesh': John G. Chasman's 'Pornographic' Constitutionalism Designed to Produce an 'Aversion and Detestation'. 1883-1904,” American Nineteenth Century History 6, no. 3  (2005): 295-322.

———, “National Policing, Lynching, and Constitutional Change,” Journal of Southern History 74, no. 3  (2008): 589-626.

Ronald W. Walters, “The Criticality of Racism,” The Black Scholar 26 (1996): 2-8.

Jason Morgan Ward, Hanging Bridge: Racial Violence and America's Civil Rights Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016).

Ida B. Wells-Barnett, ”Anti-Lynching Bureau of the National Afro-American Council,” Appeal 1899, 4.

———, ”Evans Not Guilty,” Cleveland Gazette 1900.

———, “Lynch Law in America,” Arena 23, no. 1  (1900): 15-24.

———, “The Negro's Case in Equity,” Independent 52 (1900): 1010-11.

———, “Our Country's Lynching Record,” Survey 29 (1913): 473-74.

———, Southern Horrors and Other Writings: The Anti-Lynching Campaign of Ida B. Wells, 1892-1900, ed. Jacqueline Jones Royster (Boston: Bedford Books, 1997).

Walter White, Rope and Faggot: A Biography of Judge Lynch (1929 rpt., New York: Arno Press, 1969).

Robyn Wiegman, “The Anatomy of Lynching,” Journal of the History of Sexuality 3, no. 3  (1993): 445.

Kidada E. Williams, “Resolving the Paradox of Our Lynching Fixation: Reconsidering Racialized Violence in the American South after Slavery,” American Nineteenth Century History 6, no. 3  (2005): 323-50.

———, They Left Great Marks on Me : African American Testimonies of Racial Violence from Emancipation to World War I (New York: New York University Press, 2012).

Amy Louise Wood, “Lynching Photography and the Visual Reproduction of White Supremacy,” American Nineteenth Century History 6, no. 3  (2005): 373-99.

———, Lynching and Spectacle: Witnessing Racial Violence in America, 1890-1940 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009).

George C. Wright, Racial Violence in Kentucky, 1865-1940: Lynchings, Mob Rule and 'Legal Lynchings' (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1990).

Simeon Wright, and Herb Boyd, Simeon's Story : An Eyewitness Account of the Kidnapping of Emmett Till, 1st ed. (Chicago, Ill.: Lawrence Hill Books, 2010).

John A. Wyeth, ”The Negro Report on Sam Hose,” New York Sun, June 30, 1899.

Robert L. Zangrando, The Efforts of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People to Secure Passage of a Federal Anti-Lynching Law, 1920-1940 (1963), microform.

———, The NAACP Crusade against Lynching, 1909-1950 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1980).