Reconstruction Education

Lesley  Thomson-Sasso 's picture

Good Morning Scholars! 

I am looking for some books that can provide me with a historiography of education (freedman's schools, etc.) during Reconstruction and the Nadir - particularly the years 1889-1915. I am presenting at a conference and would love a broader knowledge of this period. Thank you in advance for your help on this matter - books/articles are greatly appreciated! 

The standard revisionist treatment is

Anderson, James D., The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860-1935. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Also his articles

--------, “Northern Foundations and the Shaping of Southern Black Rural Education, 1902-1935.” History of Education Quarterly 18 (Winter 1978): 371-96.

--------, “Ex-Slaves and the Rise of Universal Education in the New South, 1860-1880,” In Education and the Rise of the New South, edited by Ronald K. Goodenow and Arthur O. White, 1-25 (1981).

Classic are

Bond, Horace Mann, The Education of the Negro in the American Social Order. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1934.

--------, Negro Education in Alabama: A Study in Cotton and Steel. Washington, D.C.: Associated Publishers, 1939.

The works of Ronald Butchart are foundational for Emancipation-1877. Especially useful (if now dated) is his historiographical review "Outthinking and Outflanking"

Butchart, Ronald E., “Black Hope, White Power: Emancipation, Reconstruction, and the Legacy of Unequal Schooling in the U.S. South, 1861-1880.” Paedagogica Historica 46 (2010): 33-50.

--------, Northern Schools, Southern Blacks, and Reconstruction: Freedmen’s Education, 1862-1875. Westport, Ct.: Greenwood Press, 1980.

--------, “‘Outthinking and Outflanking the Owners of the World:’ A Historiography of the African American Struggle for Education.” History of Education Quarterly 28 (1988): 333-366.

--------, “Remapping Racial Boundaries in Reconstruction: Teachers as Border Police and Boundary Transgressors in Post-Emancipation Black Education, USA, 1861-1876.” Paedagogica Historica 43 (2007): 61-78.

--------, Schooling the Freed People: Teaching, Learning, and the Struggle for Black Freedom, 1861-1876 (2010)

Also Morris, Robert C. Reading, ‘Riting, and Reconstruction: The Education of Freedmen in the South, 1861-1870. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982. [Morris disagrees on a few key points with Butchart, useful to read them in conjunction]

On the American Missionary Association (although much ink has been spilled on this topic) the classic treatment is

Richardson, Joe M., Christian Reconstruction: The American Missionary Association and Southern Blacks, 1861-1890. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1986.

Also see his continuation

-------- and Maxine D. Jones, Education for Liberation (2009)

Key recent works include

Fairclough, Adam, A Class of Their Own: Black Teachers in the Segregated South. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007.

--------, Teaching Equality: Black Schools in the Age of Jim Crow. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2001.

Green, Hilary, Educational Reconstruction: African American Schools in the Urban South, 1865-1890 (2016)

Williams, Heather Andrea. Self-Taught: African American Education in Slavery and Freedom. (2005)

And, as always, a healthy dose of W.E.B. DuBois.

Anderson, James D. The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860-1935. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Ballard, Allen B. The Education Of Black Folk: The Afro-American Struggle For Knowledge In White America. Universe, 2004.

Becker, Anja. “From Cotton Field to Schoolhouse: African American Education in Mississippi, 1862-1875. Psychology and Selfhood in the Segregated South.” Reviews in American History 39, no. 1 (March 2011): 127–133.

Bond, Horace Mann. 1935. "The Curriculum and the Negro Child". The Journal of Negro Education. 4, no. 2: 159-168.

Bond, Horace Mann. 1994. Negro education in Alabama: a study in cotton and steel. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.

Butchart, Ronald E. 2010. "Black Hope, White Power: Emancipation, Reconstruction and the Legacy of Unequal Schooling in the US South, 1861-1880". Paedagogica Historica: International Journal of the History of Education. 46, no. 1-2: 33-50.

Butchart, Ronald E. “‘Outthinking and Outflanking the Owners of the World’: A Historiography of the African American Struggle for Education.” History of Education Quarterly 28, no. 3 (1988): 333–66.

Du Bois, William Edward Burghardt. The Negro Common School. Atlanta: Atlanta Univ. Press, Georgia, 1901.

Funke, Loretta. “The Negro in Education.” Journal of Negro History 5, no. 1 (1920): 1–21.

Fultz, M. 1995. "Teacher Training and African American Education in the South, 1900-1940". The Journal of Negro Education. 64, no. 2: 196.

Harlan, Louis R. 1957. "The Southern Education Board and the Race Issue in Public Education". The Journal of Southern History. 23, no. 2: 189-202.

Maxcy, Spencer J. 1976. "The Idea of Consolidation in Southern Education During the Early Decades of the Twentieth Century". Peabody Journal of Education. 53, no. 3: 216-222.

Newby, Robert G, and David B Tyack. “Victims Without ‘Crimes’: Some Historical Perspectives on Black Education.” Journal of Negro Education 40, no. 3 (1971): 192–206.

Rury, John L. Education and Social Change: Contours in the History of American Schooling. New York: Routledge, 2013.

Sherer, Robert G. Subordination or liberation? : The development and conflicting theories of Black education in nineteenth century Alabama. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1977.

Span, C. M. 2002. "I Must Learn Now or Not At All”: Social and Cultural Capital in the Education Initiatives of Formerly Enslaved African Americans in Mississippi, 1862-1869.” Journal of African American History. 87: 196-205.

Watkins, William Henry. The White Architects of Black Education: Ideology and Power in America, 1865-1954. Teachers College Press, 2001.

Williams, Heather Andrea. Self-Taught: African American Education in Slavery and Freedom. Univ of North Carolina Press, 2005.

Williamson, Joel. After Slavery: The Negro in South Carolina During Reconstruction, 1861-1877. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1965.

Woodson, Carter G. The Mis-Education of the Negro (an African American Heritage Book). Wilder Publications, 1933.

Hope this helps. It is not exhaustive