A dispatch from Joe Campbell: achcauhtli

Ben Leeming's picture

 a:chca:uhtli 

 

   There is some irony in saying about a Nahuatl morpheme,  

"this is an interesting morpheme"... because so many Nahuatl  

morphemes ARE interesting!  But "a:chca:uhtli" deserves  

the comment both because of its semantic range and its  

morphophonological variation. 

 

   Some notion of its semantic value: 

 

    older brother 

    warrior leader 

    ship captain 

    person of authority 

    

   "Achcauhtli" can take specific possessive prefixes: 

 

     incihuatachcahuan   their head mistress of women  

     amotiachcauh        y'all's leader 

     imachcauh           their leader 

     m[o]achcauh         your older brother 

 

   One of the interesting facets in the "behavior" of  

"te-achcauh" is the variation in the possessive prefix "te-". 

  

  1. It can be maintained in its full form:  

 

    teachcauh            captain 

 

  2. Its 'e' can raise to 'i': 

 

    intiachcahuan        their war leaders 

 

  3. Its vowel can completely elide: 

 

    intachcahuan         their war leaders 

 

 

 

 

A sample of occurrences of "achcauhtli": 

  ('m' numbers are in Molina; "b" numbers are in books of the Florentine) 

 

*a:chca:uhtli *** 

 

  acallachixcateachcauh (acallachixcatiachcauh) [scribal error: ??is 

    this a phrase?: 55m].  piloto principal. <a:tl1-calli-tlachiya- 

    prt1-ca:5-poss-a:chca:uhtli +ltl>ll +y>x +e>i>. 55m-16| 

 

  achcacauhti (achcacauhti).  he becomes a judge. <a:chca:uhtli-v01a 

    +min>. b.6 f.20 p.252| 

 

  achcacauhtin (achcacauhti).  chief warriors; constables; leaders of 

    youths; elders; judges. <a:chca:uhtli-plur02 +del.n +min>. b.3 

    f.04 p.59| 

 

  achcahuan , int- (intachcaoan).  their leaders. <poss-poss- 

    a:chca:uhtli-plur04 +ret.n>. b.6 f.11 p.128| 

 

  achcahuan , inti- (intiachcahoan).  their war leaders. <poss-poss- 

    a:chca:uhtli-plur04 +ret.n>. b.9 f.03 p.32| 

 

  achcahuan , t- (tachcaoa).  leaders. <poss-a:chca:uhtli-plur04 

    +del.n>. b.3 f.04 p.66| 

 

  achcahuan , te- (teachcaoa).  leaders of youths. <poss-a:chca:uhtli- 

    plur04 +del.n>. b.2 f.02 p.56| 

 

  achcauh , amoti- (amotiachcauh).  your [pl.] leader of youths. <poss- 

    poss-a:chca:uhtli +e>i>. b.6 f.11 p.128| 

 

  achcauh , im- (jmachcauh).  their leader. <poss-a:chca:uhtli>. b.4 

    f.02 p.17| 

 

  achcauh , m[o]- (machcauh).  your older brother. <poss-a:chca:uhtli 

    +kin>. b.6 f.05 p.52| 

 

  achcauh , moti- (motiachcauh).  your older brother. <poss-poss- 

    a:chca:uhtli>. b.5 f.02 p.185| 

 

  achcauh , n[o]- (nachcauh).  my elder brother. <poss-a:chca:uhtli>. 

    b.10 f.10 p.169| 

 

  achcauh , t- (tachcauh).  leader; leading one; older person; 

    principal one; worst one; you are an older brother. <poss- 

    a:chca:uhtli +del.e +min>. b.2 f.13 p.207| 

 

  achcauh , te- (teachcauh).  captain; master of the youths; someone's 

    older brother. <poss-a:chca:uhtli>. b.6 f.18 p.227| 

 

  achcauh , ti- (tiachcauh).  leader of the youths; master of the 

    youths. <poss-a:chca:uhtli>. b.8 f.04 p.61| 

 

  achcauh , tit[o]- (titachcauh).  you are our older brother. <p12- 

    poss-a:chca:uhtli +kin>. b.6 f.05 p.52| 

 

  achcauh =acalco te (acalco tiachcauh).  patron de nao o carraca; 

    patron de nao o de carraca. <a:tl1-calli-co1 poss-a:chca:uhtli 

    +e>i +phrase>. 55m-15| 

 

  achcauh =acallachiyani in te (acallachiani inteachcauh).  piloto 

    principal. <a:tl1-calli-tlachiya-ni1 in poss-a:chca:uhtli +ltl>ll 

    +del.y +phrase.poss +phrase>. 55m-16| 

 

  achcauh =cahuallopixqueh in te (cahuallopixqueh inteachcauh). 

    cauallerizo. <++cahuallo-piya-prt1-plur14 in poss-a:chca:uhtli 

    +spanish +y>x +phrase.poss +phrase>. 55m-3| 

 

  achcauh =coatihuayan te (cohuatihuayan teachcauh).  principe del 

    combite. <co:a:tl-v01a-hua2-ya:n poss-a:chca:uhtli +ret.n 

    +phrase>. 55m-16| 

 

  achcauh =huel te (huel teachcauh).  cosa mayor y mas principal. 

    <huel1 poss-a:chca:uhtli +phrase>. 71m2-27| 

 

  achcauh =oc cencah te (oc cencah tachcauh).  mayor cosa mas grande; 

    mayor; cosa mas grande; cosa mayor o mas principal; que las de 

    mas. comparatiuo. <oc cencah poss-a:chca:uhtli +del.e +phrase>. 

    55m-13| 

 

  achcauh =oc yeh te (oc yeh tachcauh).  mas, aduerbio comparatiuo. 

    <oc eh3 poss-a:chca:uhtli +del.e +insert.y +phrase>. 55m-13| 

 

  achcauh =t (tachcauh).  primero y principal. <poss-a:chca:uhtli 

    +del.e +min>. 55m-16| 

 

  achcauh =te (teachcauh).  auentajado; auentajado assi  (assi is 

    auentajarse en algo). <poss-a:chca:uhtli>. 55m-1| 

 

  achcauh =te (teachcauh).  ermano mayor. <poss-a:chca:uhtli +kin>. 

    55m-8| 

 

  achcauh =te (tachcauh).  especial por se¤alado; especial; por 

    se¤alado. <poss-a:chca:uhtli +min>. 55m-9| 

 

  achcauh =te (busca ermano (found ermano mayor) | teachcauh || busca 

    ermano (found ermano mayor)).  hermano. <poss-a:chca:uhtli +kin>. 

    71m1-131| 

 

  achcauh in amatlahcuilohqueh =in te (in tiachcauh in 

    amatlahcuilohqueh).  escriuano principal. <in poss-a:chca:uhtli in 

    a:matl-p51-ih2-cui-l2-v03a-caus06-prt1-plur14 +e>i +phrase>. 55m- 

    8| 

 

  achcauh in tlatlamati =in te (inteachcauh in tlatlamati).  momo 

    principal. <in poss-a:chca:uhtli in dupl-p51-mati +fusion 

    +phrase>. 55m-14| 

 

  achcauhcalli (Achcauhcalli).  house of the leaders of youths. 

    <a:chca:uhtli-calli>. b.8 f.03 p.43| 

 

  achcauhchiuhtiuh , t- (tachcauhchiuhtiuh).  he goes a commissioned 

    leader. <poss-a:chca:uhtli-chi:hua-prt1-ti1-yauh2 +del.e aux14b>. 

    b.5 f.01 p.154| 

 

  achcauhchiuhtiyazqueh , t- (tachcauhchiuhtiazque).  they will become 

    leaders, they will go becoming leaders. <poss-a:chca:uhtli-chi:hua- 

    prt1-ti1-yauh1-z-plur01 aux14a +tia1 +del.y>. b.9 f.02 p.15| 

 

  achcauhmati =nite (achcauhmati =nite).  anteponer al igual ami; 

    anteponer o preferir al ygual ami. <p11-p52-a:chca:uhtli-mati 

    +wm>wm>. 55m-1| 

 

  achcauhnectica , mot[e]- (motachcauhnectica).  he is wanting to be 

    in authority. <p54-poss-a:chca:uhtli-nequi-prt1-ti1-ca:1a aux11a>. 

    b.4 f.02 p.15| 

 

  achcauhnequi , mot- (mutachcauhnequj).  he wishes to be superior. 

    <p54-poss-a:chca:uhtli-nequi>. b.4 f.05 p.48| 

 

  achcauhtecayah , quiti- (quitiachcauhtecaia).  they established him 

    as a master of the youths. <p33-poss-a:chca:uhtli-te:ca-ya3- 

    plur15>. b.8 f.05 p.76| 

 

  achcauhti =te (teachcauhti).  capitan de gente. <poss-a:chca:uhtli- 

    v01a>. 71m1-042| 

 

  achcauhtin , ti- (tiachcauhti).  masters of youths. <poss- 

    a:chca:uhtli-plur02 +del.n>. b.3 f.01 p.7| 

 

  achcauhtitiuh =nite (nit[e]achcauhtitiuh).  auentajarse en algo. 

    <p11-poss-a:chca:uhtli-v01a-ti1-yauh2 aux14b>. 55m-1| 

 

  achcauhtiya , t- (tachcauhtia).  it excels. <poss-a:chca:uhtli-v01a- 

    v01b +del.y>. b.10 f.12 p.193| 

 

  achcauhtlalilo , t- (tachcauhtlalilo).  he is made a master of 

    youths. <poss-a:chca:uhtli-tla:lia:-lo:1>. b.3 f.04 p.55| 

 

  achcauhtlaliloc , net- (netachcauhtlaliloc).  there was election of 

    leaders. <p53-poss-a:chca:uhtli-tla:lia:-lo:2-prt2>. b.10 f.12 

    p.194| 

 

  achcauhtlaliloya , onnet- (vnnetachcauhtlaliloia).  there was 

    election of leaders. <o:n-p53-poss-a:chca:uhtli-tla:lia:-lo:2- 

    ya3>. b.10 f.12 p.191| 

 

  achcauhtlayacatih (achcauhtlaiacati).  leading militia officer. 

    <a:chca:uhtli-p51-yacatl-v04-caus08=0-prt1>. b.8 f.04 p.71| 

 

  achcauhtlayacatihqueh , ti- (tiachcauh tlaiacatique).  leaders. 

    <poss-a:chca:uhtli-p51-yacatl-v04-caus08=0-prt1-plur01 +joined>. 

    b.3 f.01 p.6| 

 

  achcauhtli (achcauhtli).  captain of the guard; constable. 

    <a:chca:uhtli>. b.4 f.03 p.24| 

 

  achcauhtzine , n- (Nachcauhtzine).  O my elder brother. <poss- 

    a:chca:uhtli-tzin-e2>. b.12 f.07 p.110| 

 

  achcauhximayah , moti- (motiachcauhximaia).  they cut their hair 

    like the masters of the youths. <p54-poss-a:chca:uhtli-xi:ma-ya3- 

    plur15>. b.2 f.05 p.100| 

 

  achcauhyotl =te (tiachcauhyotl).  maestradgo dignidad deste; 

    maestradgo; dignidad deste. <poss-a:chca:uhtli-yoa:-l2 +te2 +e>i>. 

    55m-13| 

 

  cemachcauh =te (tecemachcauh).  mayor de todos. <poss-cem- 

    a:chca:uhtli>. 55m-13| 

 

  centeachcauh (centiachcauh).  mayor de todos. <cem-poss-a:chca:uhtli 

    +e>i>. 55m-13| 

 

  cihuatachcahuan , in- (incioatachcaoan).  their mistresses of the 

    women. <poss-cihua:tl-poss-a:chca:uhtli-plur04 +ret.n>. b.2 f.05 

    p.102| 

 

  ichpochtiachcauh (ichpuchtiachcauh).  leader of the girls. <poss- 

    ichpo:chtli-poss-a:chca:uhtli>. b.6 f.17 p.210| 

 

  teach , ti- (titeach).  you are the oldest; you are an older 

    brother. <p12-poss-a:chca:uhtli>. b.6 f.08 p.92| 

 

  teach , tino- (tinoteach).  you are my oldest. <p12-poss-poss- 

    a:chca:uhtli>. b.6 f.09 p.105| 

 

  teachcauhhuia =nitla=onitlateachcauhuih (achcauhuia 

    =nitlate=onitlateachcauhuih) [scribal error: ??note that molina 

    stripped the possessive "te-" as if it were an object: 71m2].  ser 

    mejorado en lo que se reparte. <p11-p51-poss-a:chca:uhtli-v05b>. 

    71m2-1| 

 

  teopixcatachcauh (teopixcatachcauh).  perlado por prelado. <teo:tl- 

    piya-prt1-ca:5-poss-a:chca:uhtli +y>x +del.e>. 71m1-171| 

 

  teopixcatachcauh (teopixcatachcauh).  perlado por prelado. <teo:tl- 

    piya-prt1-ca:5-poss-a:chca:uhtli +y>x +del.e>. 71m1-171| 

 

  teopixcateachcauh (teopixcateachcauh) [scribal error: ??: 55m]. 

    perlado por prelado. <teo:tl-piya-prt1-ca:5-poss-a:chca:uhtli 

    +y>x>. 55m-15| 

 

  tiachcauhnequi =nino (tiachcauhnequi =nino).  anteponerse a otro. 

    <p11-p54-poss-a:chca:uhtli-nequi>. 55m-1| 

 

  tiiachcauh (tiiachcauh).  master of the youths. <poss-a:chca:uhtli>. 

    b.8 f.04 p.62| 

 

  titiachcahuan (titiachcaoa^).  masters of the youths. <a:chca:uhtli- 

    plur04>. b.4 f.10 p.108| 

 

  tlahcoteach (tlacoteach).  third oldest brother. <tlahco-poss- 

    a:chca:uhtli>. b.6 f.09 p.108| 

 

  tlahcuilocateachcauh (tlahcuilocatiachcauh).  escriuano principal. 

    <p51-ih2-cui-l2-v03a-caus06-prt1-ca:5-poss-a:chca:uhtli +e>i>. 55m- 

    8| 

 

  [y]aotachcacahuan , i- (iautachcacahoan).  his war leaders. <poss- 

    ya:o:tl-poss-a:chca:uhtli-plur04 +ret.n>. b.9 f.01 p.5| 

 

  yaotachcahuan , in- (i yaotachcaua).  their war leaders. <poss- 

    ya:o:tl-poss-a:chca:uhtli-plur04 +del.n +del.n>. b.8 f.05 p.87| 

 

  yaotachcauh (yaotachcauh).  capitan; capitan de soldados. <ya:o:tl- 

    poss-a:chca:uhtli +e>0>. 55m-2| 

 

  yaotachcauh (iautachcauh).  commander; war commander. <ya:o:tl-poss- 

    a:chca:uhtli +e>0>. b.12 f.03 p.40| 

 

  yaotachcauhti =ni (yaotachcauhti =ni).  capitanear. <p11-ya:o:tl- 

    poss-a:chca:uhtli-v01a +ret.y +e>0>. 55m-3| 

 

  yaotachcauhyotl (yaotachcauhyotl).  capitania assi  (assi is 

    capitan) (assi is capitan); capitania tal  (tal is capitan); 

    officio de capitan de soldados. <ya:o:tl-poss-a:chca:uhtli-yoa:-l2 

    +e>0>. 55m-2| 

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