Image Credits

List of Illustrations

The images used on the front page of H-Net are courtesy of the following individuals and organizations:

Pieter Breugel the Elder, The Tower of Babel, 1563, Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna. Public domain image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

Main Reading Room of the Library of Congress in the Thomas Jefferson Building. Photograph by Carol M. Highsmith, 2009. Public domain image courtesy of Wikipedia

The Gothic Study – The Private Library of William Randolph Hearst. Photograph by Trey Ratcliff, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 license, accessed via flickr

Unidentified Artist, Books and Scholars’ Possessions, early 20th century, Korea. Ten-panel folding screen; ink and color on silk. Purchase, Shelby White Gift, 2005. Courtesy of

Unidentified Artist, Scholars and Monkeys under Trees, Ming (1368-1644) or Qing (1644-1911) dynasty, China. Handscroll; ink on silk. From the Collection of A. W. Bahr, Purchase, Fletcher Fund, 1947. Courtesy of

William Hogarth, Scholars at a Lecture, 1736, etching and engraving. Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1932. Courtesy of

Greek depiction of Darius the Great. Accessed at The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies:

Étienne-Louis Boullée, Project for the National Library in Paris, France, 1795. Public domain image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

Domenico Gamberti, Francesco I d'Este Invites Foreign Scholars to Court, from L'Idea di un Principe ed Eroe Cristiano in Francesco I d'Este, di Modena e Reggio Duca VIII [...] by Bartolomeo Fenice (Fénis), 1659, etching. The Elisha Wittelsey Collection, The Elisha Wittelsey Fund, 1959. Courtesy of

Fang Congyi, Cloudy Mountains, Chinese, second half of 15th century, handscroll; ink and color on paper. Ex coll.: C. C. Wang Family, Purchase, Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, by exchange, 1973. Courtesy of

Tony Brooks, Library of Congress Reading Room Dome. via flickr stream

Abu’l Quasim Firdausi, “Iskandar in the Presence of the Brahmins,” Folio from a Shahnama (Book of Kings) of Firdausi, ca. 1330-40, Iran, probably Isfahan, ink, opaque watercolor, gold, and silver on paper. Bequest of Monroe C. Gutman, 1974. Courtesy of

Kitagawa Utamaro, The Four Elegant Accomplishments (Kin ki sho ga), ca. 1788, Japan, triptych of polychrome woodblock prints; ink and color on paper. Gift of Estate of Samuel Isham, 1914. Courtesy of

The Garden of False Learning from a set of The Table of Cebes, design based on a woodcut by David Kandel, 1550-80, wool and silk embroidery on canvas. Gift of Constance McCann Betts, Mrs. Winston F.C. Guest, and Frasier W. McCann, 1942. Courtesy of

Feast of William the Conqueror, detail from the Bayeux Tapestry, late 11th century. Courtesy of Wikipedia

Okumura Toshinobu (active ca. 1725–1750), Daikoku and Shoki Playing Chess, ca. 1730, Japan; Monochrome woodblock print; ink and color on paper. Gift of Estate of Samuel Isham, 1914. Courtesy of

Abu'l Qasim Firdausi (935–1020). "Buzurgmihr Masters the Game of Chess", Folio from a Shahnama (Book of Kings),ca. 1300–30, Iraq or Iran; Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper. Purchase, Joseph Pulitzer Bequest, 1934. Courtesy of

Paul Cézanne, The Card Players, 1890–92, Oil on canvas. Bequest of Stephen C. Clark, 1960. Courtesy of

The Wedding Feast of the Lamb, Trierer Apocalypse, Stadtbibliothek (Trier, Germany), fol. 49r. Image used by permission of Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt (Graz, Austria). For more information about the facsimiles produced by the Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, visit their website at