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Nepohualtzitzin appears in Remi Simeon's Nahuatl dictionary with the description you cite, his source being the 18th-century work of Francisco Javier Clavigero.
It is built on the transitive verb stem pohua "to count something." The necessarily bound form -pohualli refers to a unit of twenty, the basis of the vigesimal counting system. Cempohualli means 'one count of twenty" and ompohualli refers to two counts of twenty, i.e. "forty." Etc. Tlapohualli refers to something countable, and its negation indicates an infinite number.
Hi, Chuck, it's nice to meet you. There is one possible reference to what Boturini called nepohualtzitzin prior to his account. I mentioned it briefly in my doctoral thesis. I'll just copy and paste this passage at the end of this note.
Boturini, en la Idea de una nueva historia, describe los “quatro modos de encomendar à la publica memoria sus cosas notables” en la cultura centromexicana antes y después de la Conquista:
January 2, 20197:20 PM ET
I have taken a good look at the new book Unraveling the Voynich Codex by Janick and Tucker. It argues for a Nahuatl element in the mysterious Voynich Manuscript. The proposal is very weak in my opinion, since the proposed readings of the Voynich letters produce only gibberish if read with the proposed Nahuatl values.
You can the full review at my blog (comments are welcome):