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Re: New Book Evaluates the Pre-Holocaust Italian Race Laws (1938-1943)

Dear Michael,

Your book sounds very interesting. You are seeking other researchers who have looked a the Italian Race Laws or other countries' race laws in the pre-war period. I have researched Danish knowledge of the persecution of the European Jews through Danish diplomtic sources 1938-1945.

Knowledge was extensive and the pre-war race laws in especially Eastern Europe are very well described in these sources. Unfortunately my work is in Danish. It is at the moment due for publication this fall. I hope I will be able to raise the money for a translation.

New Book Evaluates the Pre-Holocaust Italian Race Laws (1938-1943)

I have recently published a book "The Fascists and the Jews of Italy: Mussolini's Race Laws, 1938-1943" with Cambridge University Press.   I believe it to be the first full-length, English-language work on the Race Laws as distinct from the Holocaust in Italy, which began in earnest with the German occupation of northern and central Italy in 1943.   Scholars of the Holocaust will not be surprised that I found this to be an imperfect boundary: that is to say, the Italian laws were rather more enthusiastically promoted and enforced than many people would like to remember and--while the laws w

JULY 23 1942: Treblinka extermination camp officially opened

Posted to H-Holocaust cc H-Antisemitism

Part of Operation Reinhard, located northeast of Warsaw, and operating from July 23, 1942 until October 19, 1943, between 800,000 to 1,200,000 Jews and 2,000 Romani died in the gas chambers of Treblinka II. 

In Treblinka I, a forced labor camp with a  forest, gravel pit, and irrigation facility, housing 20,000 inmates, over half of them died from hunger, disease, mistreatment, and summary executions.