My absolute favorite survey is by Georg G. Iggers, Historiography in the Twentieth Century (Hanover and London: Wesleyan University Press, 1997). It's 20 years old, but it is very concise and clear.
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Mary, thank you for the suggestion. I will look up this work.
You might try Lynn Hunt's Writing History in the Global Era. It's argument-driven, but clear and succinct about major theories/paradigms and how they relate to one another.
I am seeking an easily accessible, concise book or survey paper of major theories of historical phenomena, preferably those that are either generally accepted or that have substantial support by other scholars.