This course provides an introduction to the turbulent twentieth-century history of what used to be called "Eastern" Europe. It was a diverse region where over twenty languages were spoken and seven major religions practiced, where today there lie thirteen to twenty-six independent countries (depending how one counts). During the twentieth century it was a testing ground for social engineers and a battleground between conflicting empires and ideologies. It was a land where one could be a citizen, in the course of a single lifetime, of as many as six different states without ever leaving home. As the site of so much meeting, commingling, and strife, this part of Europe promises rich rewards to students of the human condition who are patient and persistent enough to sort through the tangled webs of its history.